0
Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer: ACCP Guidelines (2nd Edition) |

Initial Diagnosis of Lung Cancer*: ACCP Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (2nd Edition)

M. Patricia Rivera, MD, FCCP; Atul C. Mehta, MB, FCCP
Author and Funding Information

*From the Department of Medicine (Dr. Rivera), The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC; and the Department of Medicine (Dr. Mehta), Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Correspondence to: M. Patricia Rivera, MD, FCCP, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 4133 Bioinformatics Building, CB No. 7020, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; e-mail: mprivera@med.unc.edu



Chest. 2007;132(3_suppl):131S-148S. doi:10.1378/chest.07-1357
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background: Lung cancer is usually suspected in individuals who have an abnormal chest radiograph finding or have symptoms caused by either local or systemic effects of the tumor. The method of diagnosis of suspected lung cancer depends on the type of lung cancer (ie, small cell lung cancer [SCLC] or non-SCLC [NSCLC]), the size and location of the primary tumor, the presence of metastasis, and the overall clinical status of the patient.

Objectives: To determine the test performance characteristics of various modalities for the diagnosis of suspected lung cancer.

Methods: To update previous recommendations on the initial diagnosis of lung cancer, a systematic search of MEDLINE, Healthstar, and Cochrane Library databases to July 2004, and print bibliographies was performed to identify studies comparing the results of sputum cytology, bronchoscopy, transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA), or biopsy with histologic reference standard diagnoses among at least 50 patients with suspected lung cancer. Recommendations were developed by the writing committee, graded by a standardized method, and reviewed by all members of the lung cancer panel prior to approval by the Thoracic Oncology Network, Health and Science Policy Committee, and the Board of Regents of the American College of Chest Physician.

Results: Sputum cytology is an acceptable method of establishing the diagnosis of lung cancer with a pooled sensitivity rate of 0.66 and specificity rate of 0.99. However, the sensitivity of sputum cytology varies by location of the lung cancer. For central, endobronchial lesions, the overall sensitivity of flexible bronchoscopy (FB) for diagnosing lung cancer is 0.88. The diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy decreases for peripheral lesions. Peripheral lesions smaller or larger than 2 cm in diameter showed a sensitivity of 0.34 and 0.63, respectively. In recent years, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) has shown potential in increasing the diagnostic yield of FB while dealing with peripheral lesions without adding to the risk of the procedure. In appropriate situations, its use can be considered before moving on to more invasive tests. The pooled sensitivity for TTNA for the diagnosis of lung cancer is 0.90. A trend toward lower sensitivity was noted for lesions < 2 cm in diameter. The accuracy in differentiating between SCLC and NSCLC cytology for the various diagnostic modalities was 0.98, with individual studies ranging from 0.94 to 1.0. The average false-positive rate and FN rate were 0.09 and 0.02, respectively.

Conclusions: The sensitivity of bronchoscopy is high for the detection of endobronchial disease and poor for peripheral lesions < 2 cm in diameter. Detection of the latter can be aided with the use of EBUS in the appropriate clinical setting. The sensitivity of TTNA is excellent for malignant disease. The distinction between SCLC and NSCLC by cytology appears to be accurate.


Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Figures

Tables

References

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543