White, C (1990) Research on smoking and lung cancer: a landmark in the history of chronic disease epidemiology.Yale J Biol Med63,29-46. [PubMed]
Doll, R, Hill, AB The mortality of doctors in relation to their smoking habits; a preliminary report.BMJ1954;1,1451-1455. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
Doll, R, Hill, AB Lung cancer and other causes of death in relation to smoking: a second report on the mortality of British doctors.BMJ1956;2,1071-1081. [PubMed]
Wingo, PA, Ries, LA, Giovino, GA, et al Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973–1996, with a special section on lung cancer and tobacco smoking.J Natl Cancer Inst1999;91,675-690. [PubMed]
Rosen, G. A history of public health: expanded edition. 1993; The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD:.
Reducing the health consequences of smoking: 25 years of progress; a report of the Surgeon General. 1989; US Government Printing Office, US Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC:.
Proctor, R. The Nazi war on cancer. 1999; Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ:.
Doll, R, Hill, AB Smoking and carcinoma of the lung; preliminary report.BMJ1950;2,739-748. [PubMed]
Levin, ML, Goldstein, H, Gerhardt, PR Cancer and tobacco smoking; a preliminary report.J Am Med Assoc1950;143,336-338. [PubMed]
Wynder, EL, Graham, EA Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchiogenic carcinoma; a study of 684 proved cases.J Am Med Assoc1950;143,329-336. [PubMed]
Smoking and health: report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General. 1964; US Government Printing Office, US Department of Health Education and Welfare. Washington, DC: publication No. 1103.
Smoking and health: summary of a report of the Royal College of Physicians of London on smoking in relation to cancer of the lung and other diseases. 1962; ,.:S2 -S70 Pitman Medical Publishing. London, UK:.
The health consequences of involuntary smoking: a report of the Surgeon General. 1986; US Government Printing Office, US Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: publication 87–8398.
Respiratory health effects of passive smoking: lung cancer and other disorders. 1992; US Government Printing Office, US Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: publication EPA/600/600F.
Samet, JM Radon and lung cancer.J Natl Cancer Inst1989;81,745-757. [PubMed]
Health effects of exposure to radon (BEIR VI). 1999; National Academy Press, National Research Council, Committee on Health Risks of Exposure to Radon, Board on Radiation Effects Research, Commission on Life Sciences. Washington, DC:.
Coultas, DB, Samet, JM Occupational lung cancer.Clin Chest Med1992;13,341-354. [PubMed]
Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking.IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum2004;83,1-1438. [PubMed]
The health effects of active smoking: a report of the Surgeon General. 2004; US Government Printing Office, US Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC:.
Ries, L Eisner, M Kosary, C eds. Cancer statistics review, 1975–2002. 2005; National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD:.
Cancer facts and figures. 2006; American Cancer Society. Atlanta, GA:.
Jemal, A, Travis, WD, Tarone, RE, et al Lung cancer rates convergence in young men and women in the United States: analysis by birth cohort and histologic type.Int J Cancer2003;105,101-107. [PubMed]
Thun, MJ, Henley, SJ, Burns, D, et al Lung cancer death rates in lifelong nonsmokers.J Natl Cancer Inst2006;98,691-699. [PubMed]
Haiman, CA, Stram, DO, Wilkens, LR, et al Ethnic and racial differences in the smoking-related risk of lung cancer.N Engl J Med2006;354,333-342. [PubMed]
Edwards, BK, Brown, ML, Wingo, PA, et al Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2002, featuring population-based trends in cancer treatment.J Natl Cancer Inst2005;97,1407-1427. [PubMed]
Mao, Y, Hu, J, Ugnat, AM, et al Socioeconomic status and lung cancer risk in Canada.Int J Epidemiol2001;30,809-817. [PubMed]
Li, K, Yu, S Economic status, smoking, occupational exposure to rubber, and lung cancer: a case-cohort study.J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev2002;20,21-28. [PubMed]
van Loon, AJ, Goldbohm, RA, Kant, IJ, et al Socioeconomic status and lung cancer incidence in men in the Netherlands: is there a role for occupational exposure?J Epidemiol Community Health1997;51,24-29. [PubMed]
Schwartz, KL, Crossley-May, H, Vigneau, FD, et al Race, socioeconomic status and stage at diagnosis for five common malignancies.Cancer Causes Control2003;14,761-766. [PubMed]
World cancer report. 2003; IARC Press, World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon, France:.
International Agency for Research on Cancer: GLOBOCAN 2002. 2002; International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon, France:.
Gordon, T, Crittenden, M, Haenszel, W End results and mortality trends in cancer: II. Cancer mortality trends in the United States, 1930–1955.Natl Cancer Inst Monogr1961;6,133-350. [PubMed]
Stocks, P, Campbell, JM Lung cancer death rates among non-smokers and pipe and cigarette smokers; an evaluation in relation to air pollution by benzpyrene and other substances.BMJ1955;,923-929
Blot, WJ, Fraumeni, JF, Jr Arsenical air pollution and lung cancer.Lancet1975;2,142-144. [PubMed]
Blot, WJ, Fraumeni, JF, Jr Geographic patterns of lung cancer: industrial correlations.Am J Epidemiol1976;103,539-550. [PubMed]
Mason, T, Mckay, F. Cancer mortality by county: 1950–1969. USDHEW 74–615. 1973; US Government Printing Office. Washington, DC:.
Blot, W, Fraumeni, J Cancer among shipyard workers. Peto, R Schneiderman, M eds.Banbury report 9. Quantification of occupational cancer1981,37-46 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. New York, NY:
Blot, WJ, Fraumeni, JF, Jr Changing patterns of lung cancer in the United States.Am J Epidemiol1982;115,664-673. [PubMed]
Saracci, R, Boffetta, P Interactions of tobacco smoking and other causes of lung cancer. Samet, JM eds.Epidemiology of lung cancer1994,465-493 Marcel Dekker. New York, NY:
Samet, JM, Cohen, AJ Air pollution and lung cancer. Holgate, S Samet, JM Koren, HSet al eds.Air pollution and health1999,841-864 Academic Press. San Diego, CA:
Willett, WC Diet, nutrition, and avoidable cancer.Environ Health Perspect1995;103(suppl 8),165-170. [PubMed]
Peto, R, Lopez, AD, Boreham, J, et al. Mortality from smoking in developed countries 1950–2000. Indirect estimates from national vital statistics. 1994; Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK:.
Samet, JM Lung cancer. Greenwald, P Kramer, BS Weed, DL eds.Cancer prevention and control1995,561-584 Marcel Dekker. New York, NY:
Zaridze, D, Peto, R. Tobacco: a major international health hazard. 1986; International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon, France:.
Peto, R, Chen, ZM, Boreham, J Tobacco: the growing epidemic.Nat Med1999;5,15-17. [PubMed]
Liu, BQ, Peto, R, Chen, ZM, et al Emerging tobacco hazards in China: 1. Retrospective proportional mortality study of one million deaths.BMJ1998;317,1411-1422. [PubMed]
Smoking and tobacco control monograph 9. Cigars: health effects and trends. 1998; US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD: publication 98–4302.
Boffetta, P, Pershagen, G, Jockel, KH, et al Cigar and pipe smoking and lung cancer risk: a multicenter study from Europe.J Natl Cancer Inst1999;91,697-701. [PubMed]
Mehra, R, Moore, BA, Crothers, K, et al The association between marijuana smoking and lung cancer: a systematic review.Arch Intern Med2006;166,1359-1367. [PubMed]
Doll, R, Peto, R Cigarette smoking and bronchial carcinoma: dose and time relationships among regular smokers and lifelong non-smokers.J Epidemiol Community Health1978;32,303-313. [PubMed]
Peto, R Influence of dose and duration of smoking on lung cancer rates. Zaridze, D Peto, R eds.Tobacco: a major international health hazard; proceedings of an international meeting, June 4–6, 1985, Moscow1986,23-33 World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon, France: IARC Science Publication 74
Smoking and health: a national status report. 1987; US Government Printing Office, US Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC:.
The health benefits of smoking cessation: a report of the Surgeon General. 1990; US Government Printing Office, US Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: publication 90–8416.
Hrubec, Z, McLaughlin, JK Former cigarette smoking and mortality among US veterans: a 26-year follow-up, 1954–1980. Burns, D Garfinkel, L Samet, JM eds.Changes in cigarette-related disease risks and their implication for prevention and control1997,501-530 US Government Printing Office. Bethesda, MD:
Wu-Williams, A, Samet, JM Lung cancer and cigarette smoking. Samet, JM eds.Epidemiology of lung cancer1994,71-108 Marcel Dekker. New York, NY:
Fiore, M, Bailey, W, Cohen, S. Treating tobacco use and dependence: clinical practice guideline. 2000; US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Rockville, MD:.
Hoffmann, D, Hoffmann, I, El-Bayoumy, K The less harmful cigarette: a controversial issue; a tribute to Ernst L. Wynder.Chem Res Toxicol2001;14,767-790. [PubMed]
The health consequences of smoking: the changing cigarette; a report of the Surgeon General. 1981; US Government Printing Office, US Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC:.
The FTC cigarette test method for determining tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide yields of US cigarettes . 1996; National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD:.
Coultas, DB, Howard, CA, Peake, GT, et al Discrepancies between self-reported and validated cigarette smoking in a community survey of New Mexico Hispanics.Am Rev Respir Dis1988;137,810-814. [PubMed]
Djordjevic, MV, Stellman, SD, Zang, E Doses of nicotine and lung carcinogens delivered to cigarette smokers.J Natl Cancer Inst2000;92,106-111. [PubMed]
Risks associated with smoking cigarettes with low machine-measured yields of tar and nicotine. 2001; National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD:.
Samet, JM The changing cigarette and disease risk: current status of the evidence; the FTC cigarette test method of determining tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields of US cigarettes; report of the NCI Expert Committee1996,77-92 US Department of Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD:
Bross, ID, Gibson, R Risks of lung cancer in smokers who switch to filter cigarettes.Am J Public Health Nations Health1968;58,1396-1403. [PubMed]
Wynder, EL, Mabuchi, K, Beattie, EJ, Jr The epidemiology of lung cancer: recent trends.JAMA1970;213,2221-2228. [PubMed]
Lubin, JH, Blot, WJ, Berrino, F, et al Patterns of lung cancer risk according to type of cigarette smoked.Int J Cancer1984;33,569-576. [PubMed]
Garfinkel, L, Stellman, SD Smoking and lung cancer in women: findings in a prospective study.Cancer Res1988;48,6951-6955. [PubMed]
Sidney, S, Tekawa, IS, Friedman, GD A prospective study of cigarette tar yield and lung cancer.Cancer Causes Control1993;4,3-10. [PubMed]
Hammond, EC, Garfinkel, L, Seidman, H, et al “Tar” and nicotine content of cigarette smoke in relation to death rates.Environ Res1976;12,263-274. [PubMed]
Stellman, SD, Garfinkel, L Lung cancer risk is proportional to cigarette tar yield: evidence from a prospective study.Prev Med1989;18,518-525. [PubMed]
Changes in cigarette-related disease risks and their implication for prevention and control. Burns, D Garfinkel, L Samet, JM eds. Smoking and tobacco control monograph. 1997; US Government Printing Office, US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD: NIH Publication No. 97–4213.
Thun, MJ, Day-Lally, CA, Calle, EE, et al Excess mortality among cigarette smokers: changes in a 20-year interval.Am J Public Health1995;85,1223-1230. [PubMed]
Thun, M, Day-Lally, CA, Myers, DG, et al Trends in tobacco smoking and mortality from cigarette use in Cancer Prevention Studies I (1959–1965) and II (1982–1988). Burns, D Garfinkel, L Samet, JM eds.Changes in cigarette related disease risks and their implication for prevention and control1997,305-382 US Government Printing Office. Bethesda, MD:
Doll, R, Peto, R, Wheatley, K, et al Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years’ observations on male British doctors.BMJ1994;309,901-911. [PubMed]
Doll, R, Peto, R, Boreham, J, et al Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years’ observations on male British doctors.BMJ2004;328,1519. [PubMed]
Peto, R, Darby, S, Deo, H, et al Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: combination of national statistics with two case-control studies.BMJ2000;321,323-329. [PubMed]
Clearing the smoke: assessing the science base for tobacco harm reduction. 2001; National Academy Press. Washington, DC:.
Risch, HA, Howe, GR, Jain, M, et al Are female smokers at higher risk for lung cancer than male smokers? A case-control analysis by histologic type.Am J Epidemiol1993;138,281-293. [PubMed]
Zang, EA, Wynder, EL Differences in lung cancer risk between men and women: examination of the evidence.J Natl Cancer Inst1996;88,183-192. [PubMed]
Henschke, CI, Yip, R, Miettinen, OS Women’s susceptibility to tobacco carcinogens and survival after diagnosis of lung cancer.JAMA2006;296,180-184. [PubMed]
Perneger, TV Sex, smoking, and cancer: a reappraisal.J Natl Cancer Inst2001;93,1600-1602. [PubMed]
Bain, C, Feskanich, D, Speizer, FE, et al Lung cancer rates in men and women with comparable histories of smoking.J Natl Cancer Inst2004;96,826-834. [PubMed]
Cummings, KM, Giovino, G, Mendicino, AJ Cigarette advertising and black-white differences in brand preference.Public Health Rep1987;102,698-701. [PubMed]
Gardiner, PS The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States.Nicotine Tob Res2004;6(suppl),S55-S65
Giovino, GA, Sidney, S, Gfroerer, JC, et al Epidemiology of menthol cigarette use.Nicotine Tob Res2004;6(suppl),S67-S81
Celebucki, CC, Wayne, GF, Connolly, GN, et al Characterization of measured menthol in 48 US cigarette sub-brands.Nicotine Tob Res2005;7,523-531. [PubMed]
McCarthy, WJ, Caskey, NH, Jarvik, ME, et al Menthol vs nonmenthol cigarettes: effects on smoking behavior.Am J Public Health1995;85,67-72. [PubMed]
Ferris Wayne, G, Connolly, GN Application, function, and effects of menthol in cigarettes: a survey of tobacco industry documents.Nicotine Tob Res2004;6(suppl),S43-S54
Malaiyandi, V, Sellers, EM, Tyndale, RF Implications of CYP2A6 genetic variation for smoking behaviors and nicotine dependence.Clin Pharmacol Ther2005;77,145-158. [PubMed]
Green, MD, Belanger, G, Hum, DW, et al Glucuronidation of opioids, carboxylic acid-containing drugs, and hydroxylated xenobiotics catalyzed by expressed monkey UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B9 protein.Drug Metab Dispos1997;25,1389-1394. [PubMed]
Ahijevych, KL, Tyndale, RF, Dhatt, RK, et al Factors influencing cotinine half-life during smoking abstinence in African American and Caucasian women.Nicotine Tob Res2002;4,423-431. [PubMed]
MacDougall, JM, Fandrick, K, Zhang, X, et al Inhibition of human liver microsomal (S)-nicotine oxidation by (-)-menthol and analogues.Chem Res Toxicol2003;16,988-993. [PubMed]
Benowitz, NL, Herrera, B, Jacob, P, III Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism.J Pharmacol Exp Ther2004;310,1208-1215. [PubMed]
Mustonen, TK, Spencer, SM, Hoskinson, RA, et al The influence of gender, race, and menthol content on tobacco exposure measures.Nicotine Tob Res2005;7,581-590. [PubMed]
Kabat, GC, Hebert, JR Use of mentholated cigarettes and lung cancer risk.Cancer Res1991;51,6510-6513. [PubMed]
Muscat, JE, Richie, JP, Jr, Stellman, SD Mentholated cigarettes and smoking habits in whites and blacks.Tob Control2002;11,368-371. [PubMed]
Stellman, SD, Chen, Y, Muscat, JE, et al Lung cancer risk in white and black Americans.Ann Epidemiol2003;13,294-302. [PubMed]
Brooks, DR, Palmer, JR, Strom, BL, et al Menthol cigarettes and risk of lung cancer.Am J Epidemiol2003;158,609-616discussion 617–620. [PubMed]
Carpenter, CL, Jarvik, ME, Morgenstern, H, et al Mentholated cigarette smoking and lung-cancer risk.Ann Epidemiol1999;9,114-120. [PubMed]
Sidney, S, Tekawa, IS, Friedman, GD, et al Mentholated cigarette use and lung cancer.Arch Intern Med1995;155,727-732. [PubMed]
Yang, CP, Gallagher, RP, Weiss, NS, et al Differences in incidence rates of cancers of the respiratory tract by anatomic subsite and histologic type: an etiologic implication.J Natl Cancer Inst1989;81,1828-1831. [PubMed]
Hebert, JR Menthol cigarettes and risk of lung cancer.Am J Epidemiol2003;158,617-620
Hirayama, T Non-smoking wives of heavy smokers have a higher risk of lung cancer: a study from Japan.BMJ (Clin Res Ed)1981;282,183-185
Trichopoulos, D, Kalandidi, A, Sparros, L, et al Lung cancer and passive smoking.Int J Cancer1981;27,1-4. [PubMed]
Environmental tobacco smoke: measuring exposures and assessing health effects. 1986; National Academy Press, National Research Council, Committee on Passive Smoking. Washington, DC:.
Fontham, ET, Correa, P, Reynolds, P, et al Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in nonsmoking women: a multicenter study.JAMA1994;271,1752-1759. [PubMed]
Boffetta, P, Agudo, A, Ahrens, W, et al Multicenter case-control study of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in Europe.J Natl Cancer Inst1998;90,1440-1450. [PubMed]
Muggli, ME, Forster, JL, Hurt, RD, et al The smoke you don’t see: uncovering tobacco industry scientific strategies aimed against environmental tobacco smoke policies.Am J Public Health2001;91,1419-1423. [PubMed]
Drope, J, Chapman, S Tobacco industry efforts at discrediting scientific knowledge of environmental tobacco smoke: a review of internal industry documents.J Epidemiol Community Health2001;55,588-594. [PubMed]
Proposed identification of environmental tobacco smoke as a toxic air contaminant. 2005; California Environmental Protection Agency, California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board. Sacramento, CA:.
Boffetta, P Involuntary smoking and lung cancer.Scand J Work Environ Health2002;28(suppl),30-40
Taylor, R, Cumming, R, Woodward, A, et al Passive smoking and lung cancer: a cumulative meta-analysis.Aust NZ J Public Health2001;25,203-211
Churg, A Lung cancer cell type and occupational exposure. Samet, JM eds.Epidemiology of lung cancer1994,413-436 Marcel Dekker. New York, NY:
Travis, WD, Travis, LB, Devesa, SS Lung cancer.Cancer1995;75,191-202. [PubMed]
Jeremy George, P, Banerjee, A, Read, CA, et al Surveillance for the detection of early lung cancer in patients with bronchial dysplasia.Thorax2007;62,43-50. [PubMed]
Khuder, SA Effect of cigarette smoking on major histological types of lung cancer: a meta-analysis.Lung Cancer2001;31,139-148. [PubMed]
Vincent, RG, Pickren, JW, Lane, WW, et al The changing histopathology of lung cancer: a review of 1682 cases.Cancer1977;39,1647-1655. [PubMed]
Charloux, A, Quoix, E, Wolkove, N, et al The increasing incidence of lung adenocarcinoma: reality or artefact? A review of the epidemiology of lung adenocarcinoma.Int J Epidemiol1997;26,14-23. [PubMed]
Thun, MJ, Lally, CA, Flannery, JT, et al Cigarette smoking and changes in the histopathology of lung cancer.J Natl Cancer Inst1997;89,1580-1586. [PubMed]
Hoffmann, D, Hoffmann, I The changing cigarette, 1950–1995.J Toxicol Environ Health1997;50,307-364. [PubMed]
Hecht, SS Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer.J Natl Cancer Inst1999;91,1194-1210. [PubMed]
Hecht, SS Cigarette smoking and lung cancer: chemical mechanisms and approaches to prevention.Lancet Oncol2002;3,461-469. [PubMed]
Brooks, DR, Austin, JH, Heelan, RT, et al Influence of type of cigarette on peripheral versus central lung cancer.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev2005;14,576-581. [PubMed]
Peto, R, Doll, R, Buckley, JD, et al Can dietary beta-carotene materially reduce human cancer rates?Nature1981;290,201-208. [PubMed]
Alberg, AJ, Samet, JM Epidemiology of lung cancer. Sadler, MJ Caballero, B Strain, JJ eds.Encyclopedia of human nutrition2005,272-284 Academic Press. London, UK:
Skuladottir, H, Tjoenneland, A, Overvad, K, et al Does insufficient adjustment for smoking explain the preventive effects of fruit and vegetables on lung cancer?Lung Cancer2004;45,1-10. [PubMed]
Wright, ME, Mayne, ST, Swanson, CA, et al Dietary carotenoids, vegetables, and lung cancer risk in women: the Missouri women’s health study (United States).Cancer Causes Control2003;14,85-96. [PubMed]
Holick, CN, Michaud, DS, Stolzenberg-Solomon, R, et al Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study.Am J Epidemiol2002;156,536-547. [PubMed]
Neuhouser, ML, Patterson, RE, Thornquist, MD, et al Fruits and vegetables are associated with lower lung cancer risk only in the placebo arm of the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET).Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev2003;12,350-358. [PubMed]
Feskanich, D, Ziegler, RG, Michaud, DS, et al Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women.J Natl Cancer Inst2000;92,1812-1823. [PubMed]
Miller, AB, Altenburg, HP, Bueno-de-Mesquita, B, et al Fruits and vegetables and lung cancer: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.Int J Cancer2004;108,269-276. [PubMed]
Smith-Warner, SA, Spiegelman, D, Yaun, SS, et al Fruits, vegetables and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies.Int J Cancer2003;107,1001-1011. [PubMed]
Bond, GG, Thompson, FE, Cook, RR Dietary vitamin A and lung cancer: results of a case-control study among chemical workers.Nutr Cancer1987;9,109-121. [PubMed]
Brennan, P, Fortes, C, Butler, J, et al A multicenter case-control study of diet and lung cancer among non-smokers.Cancer Causes Control2000;11,49-58. [PubMed]
Hu, J, Mao, Y, Dryer, D, et al Risk factors for lung cancer among Canadian women who have never smoked.Cancer Detect Prev2002;26,129-138. [PubMed]
Zhuo, H, Smith, AH, Steinmaus, C Selenium and lung cancer: a quantitative analysis of heterogeneity in the current epidemiological literature.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev2004;13,771-778. [PubMed]
De Stefani, E, Brennan, P, Boffetta, P, et al Diet and adenocarcinoma of the lung: a case-control study in Uruguay.Lung Cancer2002;35,43-51. [PubMed]
Knekt, P, Jarvinen, R, Teppo, L, et al Role of various carotenoids in lung cancer prevention.J Natl Cancer Inst1999;91,182-184. [PubMed]
Mannisto, S, Smith-Warner, SA, Spiegelman, D, et al Dietary carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in a pooled analysis of seven cohort studies.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev2004;13,40-48. [PubMed]
Wright, ME, Mayne, ST, Stolzenberg-Solomon, RZ, et al Development of a comprehensive dietary antioxidant index and application to lung cancer risk in a cohort of male smokers.Am J Epidemiol2004;160,68-76. [PubMed]
Comstock, GW, Alberg, AJ, Huang, HY, et al The risk of developing lung cancer associated with antioxidants in the blood: ascorbic acid, carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and total peroxyl radical absorbing capacity.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev1997;6,907-916. [PubMed]
Yuan, JM, Ross, RK, Chu, XD, et al Prediagnostic levels of serum beta-cryptoxanthin and retinol predict smoking- related lung cancer risk in Shanghai, China.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev2001;10,767-773. [PubMed]
Food, nutrition, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. 1997; American Institute for Cancer Research, World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research. Washington, DC:.
Michaud, DS, Feskanich, D, Rimm, EB, et al Intake of specific carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in 2 prospective US cohorts.Am J Clin Nutr2000;72,990-997. [PubMed]
Le Marchand, L, Murphy, SP, Hankin, JH, et al Intake of flavonoids and lung cancer.J Natl Cancer Inst2000;92,154-160. [PubMed]
Knekt, P, Jarvinen, R, Seppanen, R, et al Dietary flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer and other malignant neoplasms.Am J Epidemiol1997;146,223-230. [PubMed]
Neuhouser, ML Dietary flavonoids and cancer risk: evidence from human population studies.Nutr Cancer2004;50,1-7. [PubMed]
Spitz, MR, Duphorne, CM, Detry, MA, et al Dietary intake of isothiocyanates: evidence of a joint effect with glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in lung cancer risk.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev2000;9,1017-1020. [PubMed]
Zhao, B, Seow, A, Lee, EJ, et al Dietary isothiocyanates, glutathione S-transferase -M1, -T1 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk