We report the case of a man with a history of intermittent fever and arthritis who presented with a dry cough and associated lung involvement, who was eventually given the diagnosis of Whipple disease. The pulmonary symptoms preceded the development of GI manifestations. Five years later, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive macrophages were identified in duodenal biopsy specimens and polymerase chain reaction for Tropheryma whipplei was positive in the duodenum, stools, saliva, and cerebrospinal fluid. Pulmonary T whipplei was retrospectively confirmed by positive PAS staining and immunoreactivity to specific antibodies in endobronchial biopsy specimens. Antibiotic treatment was followed by remission. A literature review identified eight other cases of Whipple disease presenting with lung parenchymal involvement, predominantly interstitial lung disease (ILD), and without initial GI symptoms. In the absence of GI symptoms, a diagnosis of Whipple disease should be considered in middle-aged men presenting with ILD or lung nodules, if the patient has a history of unexplained arthralgia and/or fever. The association of mediastinal adenopathy or pleural effusion offers additional concern. Whipple disease may be fatal in the absence of treatment, but prolonged antibiotic treatment often leads to complete remission.