Sixty-nine patients with different types of anthrax were included in this study (23 malignant edema, 15 moderate and 31 slight edema). Five patients with malignant edema of the chest wall and neck who did not receive corticosteroids died, but 18 patients with the same extent of malignant edema who received corticosteroids and penicillin survived. One patient with lung involvement who received Solu-Cortef also died. Seven patients with moderate edema who received corticosteroids had a shorter hospital stay and rapid recovery. We feel that whenever malignant edema involves the thoracic wall and neck, administration of corticosteroids is life-saving and indicated.