There is a growing interest in considering limited resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We should start by being clear about the question being debated: Is a limited resection appropriate as a general policy for management of NSCLC? Limited resection is understood to be a sublobar resection, including both a wedge resection and an anatomic segmentectomy. The question posed here pertains to patients in general and not to the subgroup of patients believed unable to tolerate a lobectomy (sublobar resection as a necessary, acknowledged compromise). We are asking whether the long-term (and short-term) outcomes are sufficiently equal to lobectomy. Although the question does not specify stage, for purposes of this discussion I will assume we are only talking about clinical stage IA NSCLC (tumors ≤3 cm, with no evidence of nodal involvement).