Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an antibody-mediated adverse drug reaction that can lead to devastating thromboembolic complications, including pulmonary embolism, ischemic limb necrosis necessitating limb amputation, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke.
The methods of this guideline follow the Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement.
Among the key recommendations for this article are the following: For patients receiving heparin in whom clinicians consider the risk of HIT to be > 1%, we suggest that platelet count monitoring be performed every 2 or 3 days from day 4 to day 14 (or until heparin is stopped, whichever occurs first) (Grade 2C). For patients receiving heparin in whom clinicians consider the risk of HIT to be < 1%, we suggest that platelet counts not be monitored (Grade 2C). In patients with HIT with thrombosis (HITT) or isolated HIT who have normal renal function, we suggest the use of argatroban or lepirudin or danaparoid over other nonheparin anticoagulants (Grade 2C). In patients with HITT and renal insufficiency, we suggest the use of argatroban over other nonheparin anticoagulants (Grade 2C). In patients with acute HIT or subacute HIT who require urgent cardiac surgery, we suggest the use of bivalirudin over other nonheparin anticoagulants or heparin plus antiplatelet agents (Grade 2C).
Further studies evaluating the role of fondaparinux and the new oral anticoagulants in the treatment of HIT are needed.From the Department of Medicine (Drs Linkins, Schulman, and Crowther), McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; the College of Medicine (Dr Dans), University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines; The Uniformed Services (Dr Moores), University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD; School of Medicine (Dr Bona), Quinnipiac University, North Haven, CT; and the University of Washington School of Medicine (Dr Davidson), Seattle, WA.
Correspondence to: Lori-Ann Linkins, MD, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Juravinski Hospital, Rm-M0118, 1280 Main St W, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada; e-mail: email@example.com
Author Contributions: As Topic Editor, Dr Linkins oversaw the development of this article, including the data analysis and subsequent development of the recommendations contained herein.
Dr Linkins: contributed as Topic Editor.
Dr Dans: contributed as panelist.
COL Moores: contributed as panelist.
Dr Bona: contributed as frontline clinician.
Dr Davidson: contributed as panelist.
Dr Schulman: contributed as panelist.
Dr Crowther: contributed as panelist.
Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors of this guideline provided detailed conflict of interest information related to each individual recommendation made in this article. A grid of these disclosures is available online at http://chestjournal.chestpubs.org/content/141/2_suppl/e495S/suppl/DC1. In summary, the authors have reported to CHEST the following conflicts of interest: Dr Linkins has two potential indirect financial conflict of interests based on a peer-reviewed grant received from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada to conduct a research study evaluating a diagnostic assay (PaGIA) for HIT and a single lecture (paid an honorarium by Pfizer) that included a brief discussion about HIT. Dr Linkins also discloses primary intellectual conflict of interest for diagnosis of HIT (holds a peer-reviewed research grant from the Heart and Stroke Foundation) and secondary intellectual conflict of interest (published reviews on HIT). Dr Dans received funding from GlaxoSmithKline for research in an area unrelated to HIT. Dr Davidson received consulting fees from Bayer and Daiichi Sankyo, makers of synthetic oral anticoagulants currently in clinical trials, and expenses for travel to a Steering Committee meeting. Dr Crowther has served on various advisory boards, has assisted in the preparation of educational materials, has sat on data safety management boards, and his institution has received research funds from the following companies: Leo Pharma A/S, Pfizer Inc, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Octapharm AG, CSL Behring, and Artisan Pharma. Personal total compensation for these activities over the past 3 years totals less than US $10,000. COL Moores and Drs Bona and Schulman have reported that no potential conflicts of interest exist with any companies/organizations whose products or services may be discussed in this article.
Role of sponsors: The sponsors played no role in the development of these guidelines. Sponsoring organizations cannot recommend panelists or topics, nor are they allowed prepublication access to the manuscripts and recommendations. Guideline panel members, including the chair, and members of the Health & Science Policy Committee are blinded to the funding sources. Further details on the Conflict of Interest Policy are available online at http://chestnet.org.
Endorsements: This guideline is endorsed by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the American Society of Hematology, and the International Society of Thrombosis and Hematosis.
Additional information: The supplement Tables can be found in the Online Data Supplement at http://chestjournal.chestpubs.org/content/141/2_suppl/e495S/suppl/DC1.Funding/Support: The Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines received support from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [R13 HL104758] and Bayer Schering Pharma AG. Support in the form of educational grants was also provided by Bristol-Myers Squibb; Pfizer, Inc; Canyon Pharmaceuticals; and sanofi-aventis US.Disclaimer: American College of Chest Physician guidelines are intended for general information only, are not medical advice, and do not replace professional medical care and physician advice, which always should be sought for any medical condition. The complete disclaimer for this guideline can be accessed at http://chestjournal.chestpubs.org/content/141/2_suppl/1S.Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians (http://www.chestpubs.org/site/misc/reprints.xhtml).