Olick’s review14 expertly dissects what he terms the four “rubrics” governing ADs: their formal requirements, how decisional capacity is determined and when ADs should take effect, the rights and responsibilities of proxies and health-care providers, and the scope and limitations of decisions to forego life-sustaining therapy. In addition to reviewing the common legal components of ADs, Olick14 highlights surprising features that vary between states. For example, rules about who can serve as a proxy and which therapies can be legally withheld may vary, so that ADs executed in one state may not be honored in another. As previous authors have done, Olick14 emphasizes the limited value of living wills and correctly highlights the importance of appointing a proxy, which promotes flexibility and discretion. Finally, Olick14 highlights important, unsettled issues, such as the role proxies should play in conditions other than terminal illness and permanent unconsciousness, and whether a patient’s decision-making capacity should be considered variable, depending upon the specific treatment choice being addressed.