In their review and meta-analysis in a recent issue of CHEST (August 2011), Mavros and colleagues1 question the historical edict that postoperative fever is caused by atelectasis. The authors found little evidence to support the supposition that an association between fever and atelectasis actually exists. One limitation of the review acknowledged a paucity of data in the medical literature. A total of eight studies were included in their manuscript; however, only two specifically addressed the primary research question of association between atelectasis and fever.2,3 The first, by Engoren,2 was a blinded, nonrandomized study of 100 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery that failed to show an association between fever and atelectasis on the first 3 postoperative days. The second study, by Pérez-Aispuro et al,3 was also a blinded nonrandomized study of adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery that failed to show an association between postoperative fever and atelectasis.