We report a case of spontaneous familial pneumothorax in fraternal twin boys. The twins’ family history is remarkable for reactive airway disease and a female sibling also born with spontaneous pneumothorax. The family had no history of connective tissue disorders, renal cancer, or dermatologic diseases. Analysis of the twins’ α1-antitrypsin (AAT) genotype, phenotype, and serum concentration revealed that both were compound heterozygous for rare SERPINA1 alleles. These findings suggest a role for AAT deficiency in spontaneous pneumothorax of the newborn. To our knowledge, these are the first genetic data to support etiology of neonatal spontaneous familial pneumothorax.