Public reports of health-care quality must be valued, trustworthy, intelligible, and actionable to sufficiently guide patients toward higher-quality providers.17 There is little evidence that public reports of provider performance meet these criteria and affect patient choices in a meaningful way.1,2 The current limitations of report cards, however, offer important opportunities to improve patient engagement in efforts to improve health-care quality (Table 1). For example, enhanced framing in report cards around the importance of using quality information to choose providers18 could increase their relevance to patients. Redesign of report cards to reflect best practices from cognitive science and decision psychology could make them easier to interpret and might lead patients to the highest-quality providers more consistently.10,12,19 Presenting data in an anecdotal format, much like information one would receive from a trusted friend or relative, would take advantage of the experiential decision-making process that many people use in choosing a provider and thus may be more effective than the traditional format of provider rankings. In addition, routine incorporation of patient perceptions of care into report cards could increase their salience to consumers. Finally, composite measures can be used to combine information across numerous quality measures and thus help to decrease the cognitive burden of using report cards to choose a provider. Composite measures also could account for patient priorities in their weighting of the individual measures. For example, a patient choosing a hospital could rank the importance of different quality domains (eg, timeliness of care, cleanliness of hospital, responsiveness of staff, and appropriateness of treatment) and get an individualized composite measure that accounts for these preferences and ranks available providers based on their performance in these areas. In order to overcome competing factors that dominate patient choice, financial incentives from insurers could be aimed at encouraging choice of high-quality providers through tiered copays or restricted networks.20 Although public reports of provider performance have not yet reached their full potential to educate and inform patients, these and other enhancements could address many of the current limitations of these tools and better engage patients in efforts to improve the quality of health care in the United States.