This is a population-based epidemiologic survey of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Dhaka city population using spirometry. In Bangladesh, cigarette smoking is the most commonly encountered risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although air pollution resulting from wood burn, vehicle emission and other biomass fuels has also been identified as a COPD risk factor particularly in female. Very few studies are available assessing the prevalence and risk factors of COPD in Bangladeshi population.
This is a prospective, cross-sectional study. About 40 million people reside in Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Dhaka city constitutes of 100 wards and eight parliamentary electoral seats. Two wards were randomly selected from each electoral seat, thus we selected 16 wards or 16 study areas. Any individual living in Dhaka city continuously for at least the preceding six months aged > 35 years were eligible to be included in the study. Data related to smoking history, respiratory symptoms, comorbities, physical examination findings, spirometry values and other investigations report were noted in the questionnaire.
: Total 900 participants underwent spirometry, aged 45.26 ± 10.08 (M ± SD); of them male 76.9% and female 23.1%. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (FEV1/FVC < 0.7) was 11.4 % (103/900) of them male was 11.7% (81/900) and female 10.6% (22/900). Among COPD cases stage I or mild was 44%, stageII or moderate was 32%, stage III or severe was 18% and stage IV or very severe as 9% respectively. Regression analysis revealed that age (P < .001), sex (P < .001), smoking duration (P < .001) and low socioeconomic condition (P < .05) as independent significant risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
The prevalence of COPD was 11.4% using spirometry among subjects at 35 years or older. Increasing age, sex, smoking duration and low socioeconomic condition were revealed as independent risk factors.
The prevalence and risk factors are significant in Dhaka city.
AKM Mosharraf Hossain, No Financial Disclosure Information; No Product/Research Disclosure Information