Tracheobronchial tumors encompass a variety of benign, or low- and high-grade malignant characteristics. Clinically, these tumors usually cause an airway obstruction and secondary pulmonary infection, though the characteristics are nonspecific. The aim of this paper is to show clinical and radiological characteristics of patients in whom malignant endoluminal tumor had been diagnosed.
In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical,pathological and imaging findings in 50 patients diagnosed with endobronchial and tracheal malignant tumors during the seven years period at Institute for lung diseases and TB.
There were 29 men and 21 women, with a mean age of 45.8 years (range from 15 to 75). The most common symptoms were cough(50%), chest pain(42%) and hemopthysis(28%). Duration of symptoms was 13.7 months. Tumors were localized dominantly in large airways ( 36 in large bronchi and two in trachea). Malignant tumors manifested on chest x-ray most common as a tumor mass (46%), followed by atelectasis. Computerized tomography revealed endoluminal tumor mass in 12(24%) patients. On bronchoscopy, tumor was visible in 35(70%) with malignant tumors. Pathologic analysis revealed five different histologic types.
Although rare, endobronchial tumors should be considered a differential diagnosis in patients with cough, hemoptysis and chest pain. Major imaging findings are central, round or ovoid well-defined mass, and obstruction signs like atelectasis. Diagnosis and classification should be confirmed by pathological examination on sample taken by bronchoscopy or surgery.
Failure to respond to asthma treatment and history of chronic pulmonary infection at the same location should arise suspicion on tracheobronchial tumors and lead to further investigation.
Ruza Stevic, No Financial Disclosure Information; No Product/Research Disclosure Information