PURPOSE: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a questionnaire currently the most utilized subjective test of daytime sleepiness in clinical practice. ESS is a standard, low cost, quick and easy to apply scale. It has been validated comparing to the gold standard of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) which is Multiple Sleep Latency Test. This study aims to validate the Filipino version of Epworth Sleepiness Scale as a tool for determining excessive daytime sleepiness among the general population.
METHODS: The forward and backward translation method for bilinguals was applied. The Filipino translation was administered to 40 community dwellers and after 24 hours the English form was given to the same respondents. Testing for internal consistency was done through computation of Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed using Chi square test and the Cramer's Coefficient for each of the eight ESS questions.
RESULTS: The Filipino translation of the ESS showed good internal consistency and reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.57 (p < 0.05). The Cramer's coefficient for each of the questions between the English and Filipino version of the ESS showed acceptable construct validity of the Filipino version. (Cramer's coefficient, 0.35 - 0.68 p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The Filipino version of the ESS showed satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity. This translation can now be used to elicit daytime sleepiness among the Filipino population.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The Filipino version of the ESS can be used as a research tool in determining patterns of EDS and behavior among high risk populations. Substantive evidence may lead to policies and improvements on working hours. It can be used as a screening tool for all patients being cost-effective, easy to understand, self-administered, fast and reliable. Results can readily be interpreted and decision on further testing rapidly be made. This will limit unnecessary use of sophisticated sleep studies on patients complaining of non-pathologic sleepiness. Clinicians with no access to sleep studies may use this tool to evaluate their patients and properly triage them to sleep specialists.
DISCLOSURE: Albert Albay, No Financial Disclosure Information; No Product/Research Disclosure Information