PURPOSE: In 2003, we created a new concept, “social nicotine dependence”, which contains psychological dependence, and developed “The Kano Test for Social Nicotine Dependence (KTSND)”. The KTSND has 10 questions with a total score of 30. In order to evaluate the psychological aspects of ex-smokers, we applied it to the employees of 4 hospitals and 10 pharmaceutical companies.
METHODS: The KTSND was distributed to these hospitals and companies without showing point allocation. A complete data set was available from 159 ex-smokers. They were divided into 3 groups according to the answers about the possibility of re-smoking; group 1 (I will never smoke), group 2 (I am not likely to smoke), and group 3 (I will probably smoke).
RESULTS: The total KTSND scores of 11.4 ± 5.7(mean ± SD, n=68) for group 1 were significantly lower than those of 15.1 ± 4.6 (n=68) for group 2 and 16.1 ± 5.9 (n=23) for group 3. Ex-smokers of group 1 tended to answer negatively to the following questions; Q4 smokers’ lifestyles may be respected, Q5 smoking sometimes enriches people's life, Q6 tobacco has positive physical or mental effects, Q7 tobacco has effects to relieve stress, Q8 tobacco enhances the function of smokers’ brains, and they answered positively to Q1 smoking itself is a disease. There was no significant difference among the three groups to the questions; Q2 smoking is a part of culture, Q3 tobacco is one of life's pleasures, Q9 doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking, and Q10 people can smoke at places where ashtrays are available. In addition, the KTSND scores of ex-smokers over 50 years old (8.7 ± 5.7) were significantly lower than those of other generations. However there was no significant difference by duration of quitting smoking and gender.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the KTSND well reflected the likelihood of recurrence of smoking among ex-smokers.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The KTSND is one of the useful tools to analyze psychological changes among ex-smokers.
DISCLOSURE: Chiharu Yoshii, No Financial Disclosure Information; No Product/Research Disclosure Information