The present study was done to see the clinical efficacy of azithromycin and capreomycin along with other anti-tuberculosis drugs in the treatment of MDR-TB.
Ninety-two patients (aged 18 years to 47 years) with MDR-TB were assigned to a study group (47 cases), treated with azithromycin, capreomycin, pyrazinamide (Z), ethambutol (E) and isoniazid (H); or a control group ( 45 cases), treated with streptomycin (S), ethambutol (E), Z and H. The course of treatment was 18 months. All patients were HIV negative, smear-positive, non-pregnant and had been receiving antituberculosis drugs for an average of 69 weeks (32 to 121 weeks). Sputum examination was done every 4 weeks.
42 cases in the study group and 41 in the control group completed the treatment. The sputum negative conversion in the study group (82%) was significantly higher than in the control group (56%). The radiological improvement rate was 48% in the study group, significantly higher than that in the control group (28%) (P<0.01). The closure rate of the lung cavities in the study group (65%) was higher than in the control group (44%) (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in side-effects between the two groups.
The regimen including azithromycin, capreomycin and other second-line anti-TB drugs was effective and safe for the patients with MDR-TB.
Chemotherapy with capreomycin, azithromycin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and isoniazid seems to be promising for Indian patients having MDR-TB.
S.K. Agarwal, None.