injury may occur as a consequence of trauma, infection, occupational
exposure to respiratory toxicants, or cancer therapy. No matter what
the insult, lung injury must be resolved. Tissue repair begins with the
coagulation cascade and the activation of platelets. This is followed
by the release of inflammatory mediators important for chemotaxis of
WBCs and activation of resident cells involved in the wound repair
process, ie, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and
fibroblasts. The remodeling phase is primarily dependent on the ability
of the fibroblast to synthesize and degrade extracellular matrix
components. An adequate wound healing response results in minimal
scarring and maintenance of normal lung architecture and function.
Dysregulation at any point of this process can lead to extensive
scarring and loss of function.