The selections and choices are based on several criteria, including the number of citations each has received since publication. Additionally, we included papers that have made a significant impact on the practice of medicine, due to being either groundbreaking clinical- or laboratory-based studies that have subsequently improved the practice of pulmonary medicine. To choose the top surgical articles, we selected two we felt were the most meaningful in the overall scheme of surgical practice over the last three-quarters of a century. Since the journal started life with its roots firmly planted in pulmonary-related disease, we chose one article from the pulmonary category. Likewise, since the journal appropriately expanded its horizons over the ensuing years to meet the changing scope of modern surgical practice and, subsequently, published several seminal articles in the cardiovascular surgery arena, we chose a second article that came from this category to reflect the growing importance of this surgical genre over time. We avoided reviews, metaanalyses, and fascinating case studies but included some unusual manuscripts to reflect the broad style of this evolving learning vehicle.