More deaths occurred in those patients not receiving antibiotics on the same day as the diagnosis of LRTI. However, the two comparative groups (antibiotics or no antibiotics) are not comparable. General practitioners withheld therapy with antibiotics disproportionately among very old patients and those patients with major morbidities (specifically, those patients > 80 years of age, and those patients with a malignancy, congestive heart failure, dementia, and hemiplegia). Thus, the very people who were most likely to have the worst outcomes were also more likely not to receive antibiotics. Thus, it is hardly surprising that the “no-antibiotic” group had worse outcomes.