Léon C. A. Calmette, codeveloper of the antituberculosis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin with Jean-Marie Camille Guérin, was born in Nice on July 12, 1863, and received his MD degree from L'École Médécine Navale de Brest. In 1865, he obtained his doctorate from the University of Paris. During his lifetime, he served as a physician in many different parts of the world (Gabon, Newfoundland, Hong Kong, and Saigon). He returned to France to become head of the Pasteur Institute at Lille, where he established the first tuberculosis dispensary in Europe, and thereafter he devoted his life to the study of tuberculosis. While using a virulent bovine strain of the tubercle bacillus, Calmette found, after 13 years of study, that the strain was nonvirulent but still tuberculinogenic enough to incite antibodies. The resulting vaccine, introduced in 1921, was called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. In 1922, he authorized the use of Bacillus-Calmette-Guérin in infants with tuberculous parents, and by 1924 the vaccine was being distributed generally. Several new vaccines are currently being developed. The first recombinant antituberculosis vaccine entered clinical trials in the United States in 2004.