In this issue of CHEST (see page 426), Levin et al1 describe their experience with an infection control program aimed at technicians employing portable radiology equipment in the ICU setting. These investigators showed that an intervention aimed at improving infection control measures using an alcohol hand rub and changing gloves before and after each contact with the patient or radiology equipment significantly reduced colonization of the radiology equipment with Gram-negative bacteria (reduction 39 to 0%; p < 0.001). Additionally, these authors demonstrated that Acinetobacter baumannii colonization of portable radiology equipment, originating from a patient, occurred during the observation period. Of equal clinical importance was the finding that the infection control program deteriorated significantly during a third observation period conducted 5 months after completion of the intervention period. This deterioration was related to a decrease in compliance with the measures contained within the infection control program. This study highlights the importance of monitoring practice improvement changes following the intervention phase where the involvement and compliance of the participants is generally at its highest level. The high level of compliance during the intervention phase is usually due to the knowledge that individuals' compliance with the intervention and clinical outcomes are being prospectively monitored.