The association of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and female reproductive health problems is not well addressed.1–3 This prospective case-control study4 was done at Assiut University and Women's Health University Hospitals to estimate the effect of pulmonary TB on menstrual patterns and fertility of women of child-bearing age. It was composed of 429 women with pulmonary TB of child-bearing age (study group) and 100 age-matched healthy women (control group). A detailed medical history was obtained, and a clinical examination, routine investigations of pulmonary TB, and transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) were performed for all cases. Hysterosalpingography, combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy, were done for infertile women whenever indicated. Menstrual abnormalities were reported in 66% of women in the study group. Secondary amenorrhea (112 cases, 26.5%; p < 0.001) and hypomenorrhea (86 cases, 20%; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the study group compared with subjects in the control group (Table 1). Patients with more extensive chest-radiologic shadows and prolonged course of pulmonary TB were more susceptible. TVS revealed functional ovarian cysts in 85 women in the study group (19.8%). After completing antituberculous treatment, 76% of the study group had resumed normal menstrual cycles. Among 68 women who sought fertility within 1 year after completion of the treatment, TB peritubal and fine intrauterine adhesions were confirmed by hysterosalpingography in 2 women and 1 infertile woman, respectively (0.7% of study group), whereas persistence of the simple ovarian cysts was observed in 2 women.