We investigated the prevalence and predictors of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients admitted to the hospital for acute myocardial infarction and whether OSA has any association with microvascular perfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Recruited patients were scheduled to undergo an overnight sleep study between 2 and 5 days after primary PCI. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of ≥ 15 was considered diagnostic of OSA. Impaired microvascular perfusion after primary PCI was defined as an ST-segment resolution of ≤ 70%, myocardial blush grade 0 or 1, or a corrected Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) [antegrade flow scale] frame count > 28.
Sleep study was performed in 120 patients and completed in 105 patients (study cohort, mean age 53 ± 10 years, male 98%) with uncomplicated myocardial infarction. An AHI was ≥ 15 in 69 patients (OSA-positive), giving a prevalence of 65.7%. Diabetes mellitus was found to be a significant risk factor for OSA (odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 8.24; p = 0.033). There were no differences between OSA-positive and OSA-negative groups with regard to the percentage of patients with ≤ 70% ST-segment resolution (73% vs 64%, respectively; p = 0.411), myocardial blush grade 0 or 1 (39.1% vs 38.9%, respectively; p = 1.000), or corrected TIMI frame count > 28 (21.7% vs 25.0%, respectively; p = 0.807).
We found a high prevalence of previously undiagnosed OSA in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction. Diabetes mellitus was independently associated with OSA. No evidence indicated that OSA is associated with impaired microvascular perfusion after primary PCI.