By “uncontrolled,” Dr. Ouellette might also mean that there was no sham control arm or nontreatment group. This was not a randomized controlled trial (RCT), but rather a prospective observational study to assess morbidity and mortality. Hence, there are no claims or assertions for the superiority of any particular treatment option. The evidence base in interventional pulmonology does not contain many RCTs, especially for well-established interventions, such as airway stenting and ablative techniques, such as Nd-YAG laser ablation. Most reports in the surgical literature also do not have RCT evidence. However, new interventions, such as bronchoscopic treatments for emphysema, have been designed with sham control arms and are underway.