A total of 76 studies with 98 objectives evaluated the short- and long-term impact of multiple techniques on practice behavior objectives. Of this number, more than half (47 studies) achieved their objectives. Of these 47, 394–10,12,13,15–21,23,24,26,31–34,36–39,42–51,108 measured their effects over the long term. A further eight96,100,101,103–107 used multiple techniques but did not report the timing of evaluation. In contrast, 16 studies7,18,33,53–57,59–61,65–69 evaluated long-term outcomes but did not meet objectives, and 370,72,74 that did not specify evaluation timing failed to meet objectives. Fifteen studies59,75–79,83,84,87,89,90,92,93,109,110 did not permit interpretation; they were methodologically flawed, did not describe evaluation timing, lacked a control group, or demonstrated mixed results.