Multiple educational techniques also were employed in the 12 studies that evaluated physician knowledge application. Eight studies16–19,22,24,29,30 used lecture, four studies18,22,29,30 used role playing, five studies18,24,27,29 used readings, six studies17,18,22,26,29,30 used discussion groups, three studies21,22,30 used feedback, and three studies17,22,29 used audiotaped patient encounters. Listservs,26 problem-based learning,19 and case-based learning16,20,30 were other techniques studied. Only two studies19,30 directly compared two or more educational techniques, and the one study19 that demonstrated a difference between techniques had methodological flaws. Eight16–18,21,22,24,27,29,30 of the 12 studies used multiple techniques in the study groups, and several studies26,27,30 used similar techniques in both the control and the study groups. Based on the limited data and lack of direct comparison among methods, no conclusions can be made regarding the preferred educational techniques for optimizing physician knowledge application.