0
Original Research: ULTRASONOGRAPHY |

Diaphragmatic Motion Studied by M-Mode Ultrasonography: Methods, Reproducibility, and Normal Values

Alain Boussuges, MD, PhD; Yoann Gole, MSc; Philippe Blanc, MD
Author and Funding Information

*From the UMR MD 2, P2COE, Physiologie et Physiopathologie en conditions d'oxygénation extrêmes, Université de la Méditerranée et Institut de Médecine Navale du Service de Santé des Armées, Marseille, France.

Correspondence to: Alain Boussuges, IMNSSA BP 610, 83800 Toulon Armées, France; e-mail: alain.boussuges@univmed.fr


The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians (www.chestjournal.org/misc/reprints.shtml).


Chest. 2009;135(2):391-400. doi:10.1378/chest.08-1541
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background:  Although diaphragmatic motion is readily studied by ultrasonography, the procedure remains poorly codified. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the reference values for diaphragmatic motion as recorded by M-mode ultrasonography.

Methods:  Two hundred ten healthy adult subjects (150 men, 60 women) were investigated. Both sides of the posterior diaphragm were identified, and M-mode was used to display the movement of the anatomical structures. Examinations were performed during quiet breathing, voluntary sniffing, and deep breathing. Diaphragmatic excursions were measured from the M-mode sonographic images. In addition, the reproducibility (inter- and intra-observer) was assessed.

Results:  Right and left diaphragmatic motions were successfully assessed during quiet breathing in all subjects. During voluntary sniffing, the measurement was always possible on the right side, and in 208 of 210 volunteers, on the left side. During deep breathing, an obscuration of the diaphragm by the descending lung was noted in subjects with marked diaphragmatic excursion. Consequently, right diaphragmatic excursion could be measured in 195 of 210 subjects, and left diaphragmatic excursion in only 45 subjects. Finally, normal values of both diaphragmatic excursions were determined. Since the excursions were larger in men than in women, the gender should be taken into account. The lower limit values were close to 0.9 cm for women and 1 cm for men during quiet breathing, 1.6 cm for women and 1.8 cm for men during voluntary sniffing, and 3.7 cm for women and 4.7 cm for men during deep breathing.

Conclusions:  We demonstrated that M-mode ultrasonography is a reproducible method for assessing hemidiaphragmatic movement.

Figures in this Article

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Figures

Tables

References

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Find Similar Articles
CHEST Journal Articles
PubMed Articles
  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543