PURPOSE: Assessing sleepiness in children presents a unique challenge as sleepiness is not a frequent presenting complaint of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children. Dr. Murray Johns devised a reliable, validated questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in adults but there has not been an equally expeditous and efficacious questionnaire in children. We propose a Kids Sleepiness Scale (KiSS), modified from the ESS. In this pilot study, we hypothesize that this scale correlates very well with parent’s or caretaker’s assessment of their child’s sleepiness.
METHODS: With permission from Dr. Murray Johns, KiSS was designed with visual analogue scale of awake to sleepiness (child circles one of four choices). Eight questions asked the chance of falling asleep doing various type of activities. A caretaker numeric analogue scale list the chance of their child falling asleep: 0=no chance, 1=little, 2=more, 3=a lot. Children (5 to 17 years) referred to our Pediatric Sleep Disorders Center for SDB filled up the questionnaire. Corresponding questionnaire were filled up by the caretaker. Using SPSS statistical software, Pearson coefficient of correlation (r) was used. Data by age (school level)strata: 5-10 years (elementary), 11-13 years (middle school) and 14-17 years (high school) were analyzed.
RESULTS: Data from 52 children and 52 caretakers showed r=0.70, moderate to high correlation between child and caretaker responses. By age strata, elementary, r=0.51 showed moderate correlation; middle school, r=0.88 and high school, r=0.80 both showed high correlation (all with p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Pilot study showed moderate to high correlation of child and caretaker responses. Higher correlation in older children may indicate that questions may be easier to understand by older children, and parents find it easier to interpret what sleepy is in older children. Younger children tend to sleep earlier and are expected to sleep for longer hours.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Data are currently collected for the control group (children without SDB), to be included at our poster presentation. Responses to questions will be statistically analyzed for validity and reliability. Some combinations of questions may yield good correlations between parent and child responses among older children but other combinations may work better for younger children. The eventual goal is to have KiSS be utilized as a reliable and validated questionnaire for children's sleepiness and KiSS can be used with the same level of confidence as the ESS.
DISCLOSURE: The following authors have nothing to disclose: Catherine Kier, Daniel Barone, Muhammad Mirza, Zuzana Belisova-Gyure, Sayeed Hossain, Humayon Maqsood, Catherine Messina, Daniella Miller, Barbara Ludwig-Cull
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