There is no need to turn to statutes, regulations, or even likely the courts when an adult patient with decision-making capacity asks a physician to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatment. (Separate considerations, not addressed here, govern decision making on behalf of children, who generally are not considered to be legally capable of making such decisions.) Adult patients with capacity who are acting voluntarily may refuse any and all medical treatments as a function of their autonomy in ethical terms and as a function of their rights to control their own bodily integrity in legal terms. The main concerns with these patients are whether they truly have decision-making capacity, that is, whether they understand their medical conditions, their treatment options, and the consequences of their decisions. Medical practitioners are empowered by the law to decide whether a patient has capacity, and capacity is presumed. Although some health-care institutions prefer that specialists, such as psychiatrists, determine whether patients have capacity, there is no such legal requirement in most states. If a patient with capacity is acting voluntarily (without coercion), then as a matter of tort law, it is battery to administer or to continue to administer treatment in the face of the patient’s refusal.