Advances in critical care medicine have been met with an escalated demand for services and a greater severity of illness. The field has seen increases in both successful outcomes and the number of patient deaths occurring in or shortly after leaving the ICU. Efforts to identify, prevent, and address the suffering of patients and their families have become an increased focus of research and process improvement in the ICU. When death occurs, the suffering of family members escalates. Sometimes normal grieving occurs; however, studies indicate that family members of patients who die in or shortly after ICU stays have an unusually high incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression.