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Translating Basic Research Into Clinical Practice |

Probiotics and Lung Diseases

Paul Forsythe, PhD
Author and Funding Information

From the Brain-Body Institute and Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Correspondence to: Paul Forsythe, PhD, The Brain-Body Institute, St. Joseph’s Healthcare, 50 Charlton Ave E, T3303, Hamilton, ON, L8N 4A6, Canada; e-mail: forsytp@mcmaster.ca


Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians (http://www.chestpubs.org/site/misc/reprints.xhtml).


© 2011 American College of Chest Physicians


Chest. 2011;139(4):901-908. doi:10.1378/chest.10-1861
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Published online

Increasing awareness of the role of intestinal commensal bacteria in the development and modulation of the immune system has led to great interest in the therapeutic potential of probiotics and other bacteria-based strategies for a range of immune-related disorders. Studies in animal models have identified strong immunomodulatory effects of many nonpathogenic bacteria and provided evidence that intestinal microbes can activate a common mucosal immune response and, thus, influence sites distant to the intestine, including the respiratory tract. Respiratory effects of probiotics in animal models have included attenuating allergic airway responses and protecting against respiratory pathogens. Dendritic cells appear central to directing the beneficial immune response to probiotic bacteria and in translating microbial signals from the innate to the adaptive immune system, whereas regulatory T cells are emerging as potentially key effectors of probiotic-mediated responses, particularly in the reduction of allergic inflammation. Despite progress in basic research, clinical trials of probiotics in allergy/asthma and respiratory infection have been highly variable at best, leading to an undermining of confidence in this potential therapeutic strategy. It is clear that there is still much to learn regarding the determinants of the diverse immune responses elicited by different bacterial strains. A deeper knowledge of the interactions between administered probiotics and the existing microbiota, together with an understanding of how the dialogue between microbes and the innate immune system is translated into beneficial/protective responses, will be required before we can achieve clinically effective bacteria-based strategies that maintain and promote respiratory health.

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