Overall, 10 patients with 11 BPFs (eight men and two women, aged 66.3 ± 10.1 years [mean ± SD]) were treated in our institution with bronchoscopic AD implantation between January 2007 and December 2009. During the study period, all 10 patients with central BPFs who were referred to our institution were treated with bronchoscopic AD implantation. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients before the procedure, and all patients were informed of the fact that an off-label use of the device was being performed. The demographic and treatment data for the study patients and the patients described in previous case reports are presented in Table 1. The underlying disorders and causes for BPF development surgery are lung cancer in eight patients, severe bronchiectasis in one patient, and lung resection as the result of giant bullae in one patient. Previous unsuccessful operative interventions to close the BPFs had been performed in three patients (patients 2, 4, and 8). The AD was implanted in stumps in the right mainstem bronchus in four patients, in the left mainstem bronchus in four patients, in the bronchus intermedius in one patient, and in the right upper lobe bronchus in one patient. In one patient (Patient 8), two ADs were implanted during the same procedure to seal two fistulae. One AD was implanted in the right pneumonectomy stump and the other was used to seal a BPF originating from a tracheal, “pig” bronchus. There were no immediate complications related to the procedure, and all patients who were nonventilated were discharged within 24 h. Patient 5 was weaned from mechanical ventilation within 96 h of the procedure and was discharged to a respiratory rehabilitation institute. In nine patients, the procedure was successful and symptoms related to the BPFs disappeared following closure with the AD. In patient 3, who had a BPF following right middle lobe and right lower lobe lobectomy as the result of severe bronchiectasis, the closure was not successful because the device did not anchor well and fell into the pleural cavity. The patient subsequently had to undergo completion of the right pneumonectomy. Two patients died during the follow-up period from causes unrelated to the procedure or device.