PURPOSE: The study was conducted to observe the clinical and radiological findings of tuberculosis in patients with TB/HIV co-infection.
METHODS: 50 patients ot tuberculosis with HIV co-infection were included in the study. Detailed history, physical examination, chest radiograph and other relevant investigations for appropriate diagnosis were carried out and pattern of clinical and radiological findings of tuberculosis was studied in these HIV positive patients.
RESULTS: Of the 50 patients studied most had a combination of two or more complaints at the time of enrolment. Most common symptom observed was fever followed by anorexia, weight loss, generalized weakness, dyspnoea and haemoptysis. Other common findings were oral candidiasis , skin lesions and herpes zoster. Most of the subjects manifested as extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary consolidation was the most common finding observed in patients with co-infection with more of middle and lower lobe involvement as compared to upper lobe involvement observed in patients who are HIV negative. Additionally fibrocavitatory tuberculosis which is more common in HIV negative patients was present in only 6% of the HIV positive patients. Tubercular lymphadenitis was the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis followed by pleural effusion. Miliary tuberculosis was present in 6% and tubercular meningitis in 4% patients.
CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis is the commonest opportunistic disease in HIV positive individuals in India and can be detected by a simple investigation like chest radiograph.Presently all tuberculosis patients are being screened for HIV as per the intensified TB/HIV collaborative activities package of services under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in India.The impact and extent of TB/HIV epidemic in the Indian region will depend on future evolution of the HIV epidemic itself as well as on whether the efforts to control tuberculosis are effective and well orchestrated.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The study will help in early disease recognition in TB/HIV co-infected individuals and strenghthen efforts to provide prompt treatment to them.
DISCLOSURE: Daljit Singh, No Financial Disclosure Information; No Product/Research Disclosure Information