Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors have reported to CHEST the following conflicts of interest: Dr Castriotta is a consultant for Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Texas and has received past research support from Cephalon, Inc. Dr Eldadah is a federal employee with the National Institutes of Health. Dr King serves as a consultant to the following pharmaceutical or medical device companies: Actelion, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Centocor, Chronoger, CV Therapeutics, Domantis Limited, FibroGen, Genzyme, Human Genome Sciences, Huya Bioscience, InterMune, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Merck, GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead, Novartis, Hoffman-La Roche, Inc., and Serono. He also serves on the advisory committees for Actelion and InterMune and on the data safety monitoring boards for Centocor and GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Nayfield is a federal employee with the National Institutes of Health. Dr Reynolds is a federal employee with the National Institutes of Health. Dr Schmader has received grant support from Merck and Wyeth and serves as a consultant for Merck and GlaxoSmithKline. Dr High has received grant support from Merck, Pfizer, Optimer, Chimerix, and Afexa Life Sciences, and serves as a consultant for Optimer and GlaxoSmithKline. Drs Foster, Halter, Hazzard, Kiley, McFarland Horne, and Toews have reported that no potential conflicts of interest exist with any companies/organizations whose products or services may be discussed in this article.