An epidemiologic study of human PH in China was reported by Cheng in 1992.15 The diagnosis was made by clinical and hemodynamic data in 59 patients, including 30 cases of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), 26 cases of CTEPH, and three others. More than 73% of the patients with long-term treatment survived for > 4 years (mean 4.2 years). The study was followed by one of the first long-term (10 years) surveillance studies of patients with PH.16 Among 106,640 hospitalized patients, 7,085 (6.6%) of the patients were diagnosed with PH (3.8% with IPAH). In the patients with PH, there were 65.9% whose PH originated from congenital heart diseases (CHDs), 22.6% from left-sided heart diseases, 5.7% from thrombotic diseases, 0.9% from respiratory diseases, 0.6% from connective tissue diseases (CTDs), 0.5% from pulmonary vasculitis, and 0.03% from portal hypertensive diseases. Jing et al17 evaluated the clinical features and survival data of 72 Chinese patients with idiopathic and familial PAH. After follow-up for a mean duration of 40.1 months, the survival rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years were 68.0%, 56.9%, 38.9%, and 20.8%, respectively. Lack of effective treatment was the major cause for the poor survival according to this study. These results support the need for an effective treatment strategy for this devastating disease in China.