Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an uncommon benign condition that is occasionally associated with air within the spinal canal. We describe a further case in a 14-year-old girl and suggest a classification system based on a detailed review of the previous literature. Forty-eight patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum and intraspinal air accumulation (36 men and 12 women, age range 4-72 years, median age 18 years) were grouped into those with underlying lung disease (n = 13), those with other underlying etiologic factors (n = 22), and those arising spontaneously (n = 13). Neurologic symptoms or signs were noted in one case. The remaining cases were successfully managed conservatively. In spontaneous pneumomediastinum, accumulation of air within the spinal canal is self-limiting and benign. The same management is advised in spontaneous pneumomediastinum with and without intraspinal air accumulation.