The questionnaire was sent to approximately 2,500 professionals. Out of 915 respondents, 232 routinely performed the procedure, with an average of 25 pleurodesis procedures per year. The preference is to indicate pleurodesis only when pleural malignancy is confirmed, and scales of dyspnea and performance status are not routinely used to indicate the procedure. Nearly 75% of respondents in Brazil and Central America refer to perform pleurodesis only if the effusion is recurrent, preferably with 75% to 90% or 100% of pulmonary expansion. Talc via slurry, 2 to 5 g, is the most used agent, instilled by chest tube of intermediate size (16-28F). Thoracoscopy is used only in selected cases. Fever and chest pain are the most observed side effects, and 14% of the respondents observed cases of empyema postpleurodesis. The average survival time after pleurodesis is 6 to 12 months for all groups (Table 1).