The objective of this study was to evaluate circulating adipokines concentration in children with and without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to determine the effects of treatment of OSA on their plasma concentration.
Children with habitual snoring and symptoms suggestive of OSA were consecutively recruited. Their parents completed a sleep apnea symptom questionnaire, and the subjects underwent physical examination and an overnight polysomnography (PSG). OSA was diagnosed if they had an obstructive apnea index > 1. Fasting serum adiponectin, leptin, and lipid profiles were taken after overnight PSG. The subjects were divided into groups as obese, nonobese, and with and without OSA for comparison.
One hundred forty-one children, of whom 96 were boys, with a median (interquartile range) age of 10.8 (8.5-12.8) years were recruited. Forty-three subjects had OSA. Subjects with OSA did not have significantly different adiponectin and leptin concentrations than those without OSA for both the obese and nonobese groups. Stepwise multiple linear regressions revealed that systolic BP, age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMI z-score were independently associated with adiponectin, whereas diastolic BP, triglyceride, height, and BMI z-score were independently associated with leptin concentration. Sixteen children with OSA underwent treatment, and there was reduction in their plasma adiponectin concentration after intervention, but such change became insignificant after controlling for change in the BMI z-score.
BMI rather than OSA was the main determinant of adipokines in children.