Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors have reported to CHEST the following conflicts of interest: In the past 5 years, Dr Denning has received grant support from Astellas, Merck, Pfizer, F2G, AstraZeneca, Indevus, Basilea, the Fungal Research Trust, the Wellcome Trust, the Moulton Trust, The Medical Research Council, The Chronic Granulomatous Disease Research Trust, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health Research, and the European Union. He has been an advisor/consultant to Basilea, Vicuron (now Pfizer), Pfizer, Schering Plough, Indevus, F2G, Nektar, Daiichi, Sigma τ, Astellas, Gilead, and York Pharma. He has been paid for talks on behalf of Schering, Astellas, Merck, and Pfizer. He holds founder shares in F2G Ltd and Myconostica Ltd, both University of Manchester spin-out companies. Drs Felton, Plested, Walsham, Dark, and O’Driscoll have reported that no potential conflicts of interest exist with any companies/organizations whose products or services may be discussed in this article.