Cigarette smoking is arguably the major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the developed world. The Department of Health and Human Services in the United States classifies cigarette smoking as a chronic, often relapsing disease. Like most complex diseases, genetic and environmental factors play important roles and contribute to both smoking initiation and persistence. This review summarizes pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions for smoking cessation and provides references to evidence-based guidelines and support material. As smoking is an etiologic and exacerbating factor for lung diseases, the pulmonary physician should be particularly expert in smoking cessation interventions.