The other large randomized, multicenter trial3 was Intergroup 0139, in which stage IIIA-N2 patients received induction chemoradiotherapy. Responders were randomized to surgical resection followed by chemotherapy vs completion of radiotherapy plus more chemotherapy. In this trial,3 the 30-day operative mortality was high overall at 7.9% and especially elevated in pneumonectomy patients (25.9%). Although the progression-free survival favored the surgical arm (median survival, 12.8 months in the surgical arm vs 10.5 months in the chemoradiotherapy arm, p = 0.017), overall survival rates at 2 years and 5 years were not significantly different in the two treatment groups. Unfortunately, full data from this study have not been published, so we are unable comment on questions raised about any post hoc subgroup analysis. Of the earlier two small induction therapy studies in Table 6, the trial by Taylor et al4 was indeed retrospective and was included in error.