Tremendous advances have occurred in the care of patients with HIV/AIDS resulting from the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This has led to differences in the presentations of HIV-related pulmonary disease. Infections such as bacterial pneumonias, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, remain commonplace, while opportunistic agents such as Pneumocystis jirovecii remain a concern in patients without adequate access to optimal medical care. The tuberculosis epidemic, once thought to be slowing, has been re-energized by the spread of HIV, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Unusual inflammatory responses due to a phenomenon of immune reconstitution, are now recognized as a consequence of HAART, with a reported incidence of IRIS in this setting ranges from 7 to 45% in retrospective reviews. Noninfectious pulmonary conditions such as chronic obstructive lung disease and pulmonary malignancies are gaining prominence as patients are accessing antiretroviral care and enjoying significantly extended survival.