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Spontaneous Hemothorax: A Comprehensive Review

Hakim Azfar Ali, MD; Michael Lippmann, MD, FCCP; Uday Mundathaje, MD; Ghulam Khaleeq, MD
Author and Funding Information

*From the Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia PA.

Correspondence to: Hakim Azfar Ali, MD, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Albert Einstein Medical Center, 5401 Old York Rd, Philadelphia PA 19141; e-mail: azfarali1@gmail.com


The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians (www.chestjournal.org/misc/reprints.shtml).


Chest. 2008;134(5):1056-1065. doi:10.1378/chest.08-0725
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Extract

Hemothorax by definition is extraction of pleural fluid with a hematocrit > 50% of the blood hematocrit. Most cases of hemothorax are related to open or closed chest trauma or procedures such as central lines, thoracentesis, pleural biopsy, or catheterization. Spontaneous hemothorax is much less common, and the causes include malignancies, anticoagulant medications, vascular ruptures (aortic dissection, arteriovenous malformations [AVMs]), endometriosis, pulmonary infarctions, adhesions with pneumothorax, and hematologic abnormalities such as hemophilia.

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