The most common presentation of zygomycosis is the rhino-orbito-cerebral type, which accounts for > 50% of cases. Clinical manifestations of invasive zygomycosis include tissue necrosis from angioinvasion and subsequent thrombosis. In rhinocerebral disease, sinusitis with facial pain and swelling, unilateral headache, and bloody nasal discharge are frequent. Other manifestations in descending order of frequency include cutaneous, disseminated, GI, renal, and pulmonary zygomycosis (Table 1
). Common features of pulmonary disease include fever, dyspnea, and hemoptysis. Most commonly, pulmonary nodules and mass-like or wedge-shaped consolidation are noted. The most common locations for pulmonary disease are the upper lobes, followed by the superior segment of the lower lobes. Other radiographic manifestations described include a pleural effusion, a halo sign, central low attenuation, and, occasionally, cavitation. Endobronchial disease with lobar collapse is noted only rarely. The clinical presentation may involve major airway lesions, leading to invasion of the airway wall and hilar vessels with infarction and severe hemoptysis. As with other serious infections, early diagnosis is associated with improved survival rates.