0
Recent Advances in Chest Medicine |

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis*: A Clinical Update

Francis X. McCormack, MD, FCCP
Author and Funding Information

*From the Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

Correspondence to: Francis X. McCormack, MD, FCCP, Professor and Director, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Cincinnati, MSB 6053, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0564; e-mail: Frank.McCormack@uc.edu



Chest. 2008;133(2):507-516. doi:10.1378/chest.07-0898
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, cystic lung disease that is associated with mutations in tuberous sclerosis genes, renal angiomyolipomas, lymphatic spread, and remarkable female gender restriction. The clinical course of LAM is characterized by progressive dyspnea on exertion, recurrent pneumothorax, and chylous fluid collections. Lung function declines at approximately twofold to threefold times the rate of healthy subjects, based on an annual drop in FEV1 of 75 to 120 mL in reported series. The diagnosis of pulmonary LAM can be made on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan with reasonable certainty by expert radiologists, but generally requires a lung biopsy in cases in which tuberous sclerosis complex, angiomyolipomata, or chylous effusions are absent. The currently available treatment strategies are based on the antagonism of estrogen action, and are empiric and unproven. A trial of bronchodilators is warranted in patients with reversible airflow obstruction seen on pulmonary function testing. Pleurodesis should be performed with the initial pneumothorax, because the rate of recurrence is high. Angiomyolipomas that exceed 4 cm in size are more likely to bleed and should be evaluated for embolization. Air travel is well-tolerated by most patients with LAM. Lung transplantation is an important option for LAM patients, and can be safely performed by experienced surgeons despite prior unilateral or bilateral pleurodesis in most patients. Women with unexplained recurrent pneumothorax, tuberous sclerosis, or a diagnosis of primary spontaneous pneumothorax or emphysema in the setting of limited or absent tobacco use should undergo HRCT scan screening for LAM. Multicenter clinical trials based on several well-defined molecular targets are currently underway in the United States and Europe.

Figures in this Article

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Figures

Tables

References

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Find Similar Articles
CHEST Journal Articles
PubMed Articles
  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543