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Original Research: CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE |

Goal-Directed Intraoperative Therapy Reduces Morbidity and Length of Hospital Stay in High-Risk Surgical Patients* FREE TO VIEW

Abele Donati, MD; Silvia Loggi, MD; Jean-Charles Preiser, MD, PhD; Giovanni Orsetti, MD; Cristopher Münch, MD; Vincenzo Gabbanelli, MD; Paolo Pelaia, MD; Paolo Pietropaoli, MD
Author and Funding Information

Affiliations: *From the Department of Neuroscience, Anesthesia, and Intensive Care Unit (Drs. Donati, Loggi, Orsetti, Münch, Gabbanelli, and Pelaia), Marche Polytechnique University, Ancona, Italy; Department of Intensive Care (Dr. Preiser), University Hospital of Liege, Belgium; and Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (Dr. Pietropaoli), University “La Sapienza,” Rome, Italy.,  A list of participating hospitals is given in the Appendix.

Correspondence to: Abele Donati, MD, Clinica di Anestesia e Rianimazione Clinica, Ospedali Riuniti Umberto I, Lancisi, Salesi-Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Conca 71, 60020 Torrette di Ancona, Italy; e-mail: donati.abele@tiscali.it



Chest. 2007;132(6):1817-1824. doi:10.1378/chest.07-0621
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Background: Postoperative organ failures commonly occur after major abdominal surgery, increasing the utilization of resources and costs of care. Tissue hypoxia is a key trigger of organ dysfunction. A therapeutic strategy designed to detect and reverse tissue hypoxia, as diagnosed by an increase of oxygen extraction (O2ER) over a predefined threshold, could decrease the incidence of organ failures. The primary aim of this study was to compare the number of patients with postoperative organ failure and length of hospital stay between those randomized to conventional vs a protocolized strategy designed to maintain O2ER < 27%.

Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed in nine hospitals in Italy. One hundred thirty-five high-risk patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery were randomized in two groups. All patients were managed to achieve standard goals: mean arterial pressure > 80 mm Hg and urinary output > 0.5 mL/kg/h. The patients of the “protocol group” (group A) were also managed to keep O2ER < 27%.

Measurements and main results: In group A, fewer patients had at least one organ failure (n = 8, 11.8%) than in group B (n = 20, 29.8%) [p < 0.05], and the total number of organ failures was lower in group A than in group B (27 failures vs 9 failures, p < 0.001). Length of hospital stay was significantly lower in the protocol group than in the control group (11.3 ± 3.8 days vs 13.4 ± 6.1 days, p < 0.05). Hospital mortality was similar in both groups.

Conclusions: Early treatment directed to maintain O2ER at < 27% reduces organ failures and hospital stay of high-risk surgical patients. Clinical trials.gov reference No. NCT00254150

Figures in this Article

The development of postoperative organ failures severely affects the prognosis of surgical patients and substantially increases the utilization of resources and cost of care. The prevalence of organ failures ranges from 27 to 77%. Length of stays in the ICU and in the hospital as well as postoperative mortality are largely increased in “high-risk” patients, for whom preoperative risk factors are unavoidable.12 Therefore, the use of early and efficient therapeutic strategies able to detect and to treat potential triggers of organ failures, such as tissue hypoperfusion, is particularly important in this high-risk population. If hypoperfusion is not adequately managed, tissue hypoxia could occur, resulting from an impairment of the adaptive mechanisms of myocardial contractile function, under the influence of inflammatory mediators, and the peripheral tissues will then increase their oxygen extraction (O2ER).,14 When O2ER increases over a threshold value, venous oxygen saturation will decrease and lactic acidosis can ultimately occur.5 Hence, the use of O2ER calculated from arterial and mixed venous oxygen saturation as a therapeutic goal is appropriate to monitor goal-directed hemodynamic strategies because it reflects the balance between oxygen delivery and consumption.7 The ensuing therapeutic approach will then imply the application of a standardized algorithm as soon as O2ER reaches a predefined threshold. This concept, which differs from the “preoperative optimization of oxygen delivery”9 or the strategies aiming at the maintenance of stroke volume,10was already assessed in mixed populations of critically ill patients1112 and patients with early sepsis.13

The interpretation of venous oxygen saturation is eventually similar when mixed venous blood drawn from a pulmonary artery catheter is replaced by venous blood drawn from a central venous line.14 Indeed, evidence suggests that a multifaceted goal-directed strategy, including fluid challenge, blood transfusion, and inotropes titrated to keep central venous oxygen saturation higher than a predetermined threshold of 70%, was associated with decreased mortality and rate of organ failures when applied from the early phase of septic shock or severe sepsis.13 The aim of the present multicenter, prospective, randomized study was to compare the outcomes of patients randomized to a conventional management or to a therapeutic strategy guided by O2ER estimate (O2ERe) calculated from the arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) and central venous saturation (Scvo2), Specifically, we hypothesized that the use of a goal-directed protocol aimed at maintaining the O2ERe below a previously defined “critical” (able to discriminate survivors from nonsurvivors) value of 27%,15during surgical interventions in high-risk patients will reduce the rate of postoperative organ failures, hospital length of stay, and mortality, as compared with the standard management based on the monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), and urinary output.1617

This prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter study was approved by the Hospital Ethical Committee of Ancona for all the institutions involved in the trial. Written informed consent was obtained preoperatively from the patients. The study was performed in nine Italian hospitals during 48 months. In these hospitals, major abdominal surgery and abdominal aortic surgery were routinely performed, and these patients were usually admitted after surgery in the ICUs (5 to 12 beds).

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

Patients scheduled for elective abdominal extensive surgery or abdominal aortic surgery were eligible. After enrollment, the patients were randomized to one of the two groups of treatment (group A or group B) by a telephone system on a 24 h/d, 7 d/wk basis. Randomization was based on a permuted-block algorithm, allowing stratification for each center. The exclusion criteria from the study were age < 16 years and preexistent neurologic or malignant hematologic diseases.

Study Protocol

In preparation for surgery, the patients were equipped with central and peripheral venous and arterial catheters, respectively. Standard monitoring included continuous recording of ECG, body temperature, heart rate (HR), pulse oximetry, and arterial BP. CVP, Scvo2, arterial blood gas levels, lactate concentration, body temperature, and urinary output were recorded hourly. Hemoglobin concentration was measured when deemed necessary by the anesthesiologist. For the purpose of the study, blood gas levels measured on arterial and central venous samples, arterial lactate, and O2ERe (Sao2 − Scvo2/Sao2) were recorded after induction of anesthesia, hourly after cutaneous incision, throughout surgery, half an hour after the end of anesthesia, hourly during the first 6 h of the postoperative period, and on postoperative day 1 (Fig 1 ).

In both groups, the patients were managed to achieve predefined standard goals: MAP > 80 mm Hg, urinary output > 0.5 mL/kg/h, and CVP from 8 to 12 cm H2O until the first postoperative day. The patients of the “protocol group” (group A) were managed to keep O2ERe < 27%, following algorithms detailed in Figure 1. In brief, a fluid challenge (colloids, 250 to 1,000 mL infused over 30 min to restore CVP to at least 10 mm Hg), dobutamine (incremental doses of 3 μg/kg/min up to 15 μg/kg/min), and/or packed RBCs (PRBCs) [in cases of hemoglobin concentration < 10 g/dL or intraoperative hemorrhage > 1,000 mL] could be administered. Colloids were preferred to crystalloids because this is consistent with standard practice at our institutions. There was no specific requirement regarding the type of anesthesia in any of the groups.

Outcome Measures

The primary end point of this study was the number of patients who had at least one new postoperative organ failure described using the sequential organ failure assessment score recorded daily during the stay in the ICU (Table 1 ), with the expectation of a 50% reduction with the use of the tested therapeutic protocol. Secondary end points included the number of organ failures during the ICU stay, length of hospital stay, and hospital mortality.

Statistical Analysis

A total of 130 patients was the calculated sample size needed to detect, in a one-sided test performed with a 0.05 type I error, an absolute difference between the two groups on the number of patients who had at least one new postoperative organ failure of 20% with a 80% power, assuming a 40% of patients with complications in the control group (based on an historical database). A one-sided formulation was chosen to compute the sample size because the trial was designed to test whether therapy in the protocol group (group A) was more effective than therapy in the control group (group B), and we had no interest in formally demonstrating the opposite alternative hypothesis. At each time point, means and SDs for continuous variables were calculated for both groups of patients and were compared using two-way analysis of variance, with Bonferroni posttest for multiple comparisons to assess differences at each time between group A and group B. Fisher exact test was used to test differences in therapeutic interventions and in outcome, measured as death and organ failures. Student t test was used to test differences between groups and differences in the length of hospital stay; p values were considered significant if < 0.05 (GraphPad 2.0; GraphPad; San Diego, CA).

Three hundred twenty-four patients were assessed for eligibility, but 189 patients were excluded: 153 patients because they did not met inclusion criteria, and 36 patients because the refused to participate the study. One hundred thirty-five patients were eventually enrolled in the study: 68 patients in group A, and 67 patients in group B. All the patients enrolled concluded the study and were included in the analysis.

The patients of both groups did not differ in terms of demographic variables: age, male/female ratio, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class,18 type and duration of surgical procedures, and blood loss (Table 2 ). The assigned intervention could be performed and follow-up was complete for each randomized patient. There was no patient excluded from the analysis.

Therapeutic Interventions

Fluid challenge with colloids was administered to 27 patients in each group (1,940 ± 673 mL vs 1,805 ± 611 mL and 2,191 ± 377 mL vs 2,209 ± 381 mL, during and after surgery, for groups A and B, respectively; p = not significant [NS]) [Fig 2 ]. Remarkably, patients in group A received the fluid challenge earlier than the patients in group B (during operation, 10 patients vs 8 patients; during and after operation, 9 patients vs 6 patients; only after surgery, 8 patients vs 13 patients of groups A and B, respectively). Similarly, 10 patients in each group received PRBCs (260 ± 130 mL per patient vs 271 ± 173 mL per patient for groups A and B, respectively; p = NS), but earlier in group A (more transfusions during operation) than in group B (more transfusions after operation). In contrast, dobutamine was administered much more often in group A (30 patients, 44.1%) than in group B (3 patients, 4.5%) [p < 0.01], during (10 patients vs 1 patient), during and after (11 patients vs 1 patient), or only after surgery (9 patients vs 1 patient). The mean dose of dobutamine was also higher in group A (2.6 ± 4.0 μg/kg/min vs 0.4 ± 2.2 μg/kg/min and 2.1 ± 3.7 vs 0.3 ± 1.7 μg/kg/min during and after surgery for groups A vs B, respectively; p < 0.001). Both fluid challenge and dobutamine infusion were used in more patients of group A than group B (9 patients vs 0 patients and 6 patients vs 1 patient during and after surgery, respectively; p < 0.001).

Hemodynamic and Oxygen-Derived Variables

Importantly, most of the standard variables used to monitor the hemodynamic status (MAP, urinary output [Fig 3 , top left, A, and bottom left, C]), HR, Pao2/fraction of inspired oxygen, and body temperature were similar in both groups. Importantly, CVP was higher in group B than in group A during the late postoperative time (Fig 3, center left, B). O2ERe and lactate were higher in group B than group A, and conversely Scvo2 was higher in group A than group B (Fig 3, top right, D, to bottom right, F).

Rate of Organ Failures and Outcome

Dramatic differences in the rate of organ failures and in the length of hospital stay were seen (Fig 4 ). In group A, fewer patients had at least one organ failure (n = 8, 11.8%) than in group B (n = 20, 29.8%) [p < 0.05], and the total number of organ failures was lower in group A than in group B (27 failures vs 9 failures, p < 0.001). The incidence of each type of organ failure was decreased, with the exception of respiratory failure. There was no dysfunction of the CNS noted in any group. These impairments in organ function were mostly transient. However, the length of hospital stay was significantly lower in group A than in group B (11.3 ± 3.8 days vs 13.4 ± 6.1 days, p < 0.05), but hospital mortality was similar in both groups (2.9% and 3.0% for groups A and B, respectively), and this mortality rate was actually expected from the preoperative status of the patients.

This study clearly confirms that a goal-directed therapy titrated to keep O2ER ratio calculated from central venous sample (O2ERe) value lower than a predefined threshold of 27% reduces the incidence of postoperative organ failures and length of hospital stay. The critical value of 27% for O2ERe, as representative of the hypoxic threshold, was already reported by previous investigators15 as a predictor of survival in high-risk surgical patients. These encouraging results have been simply achieved by an earlier and more aggressive hemodynamic management, which does not require any additional invasive or expensive equipment or procedures and is operator independent. Importantly, the feasibility of the tested protocol was confirmed in the present trial because each patient randomized to the “aggressive” therapeutic strategy was treated as initially assigned, and because O2ERe was always maintained below the critical value in patients randomized to the group A, as recommended. Due to the close monitoring, there was less concern for the incidence of adverse events such as pulmonary edema, arrhythmia, and increase of HR in spite of dobutamine infusion.

The preoperative and postoperative characteristics of patients studied here were very usual in the setting of scheduled major abdominal surgery in terms of age, gender, duration of surgical procedure, ASA class, and incidence of postoperative organ failures with conventional management.2,89,1921 The issue of whether the therapeutic approach tested here may decrease postoperative mortality would require a much larger sample of patients. However, as the organ failures are usually transient and as the crude mortality is low, we would not expect a major impact of this therapeutic strategy on vital outcome. In contrast, the cost-effectiveness ratio of this therapeutic strategy, although not assessed, is probably very advantageous. Pearse and colleagues22 found that early-goal directed therapy was effective to reduce complications after major surgery. In any case, they used hemodynamic monitoring to assess oxygen availability, but this is not always available in all hospitals.

We speculate that the prevention of tissue hypoxia as soon as a warning signal is detected (ie, increase in O2ERe) in patients for whom oxygen utilization cannot be adapted explains these results and may also help to prevent postoperative organ failures in high-risk patients surgical patients.1,3,23Although not investigated in the present trial, the underlying mechanisms of tissue hypoxia could involve an impairment in myocardial contractility, a loss of vasogenic peripherical control leading to a large heterogeneity in perfusion, coagulation abnormalities, vascular permeability, endothelial dysfunction,24 and a reduction of the capacity of tissues to adapt the oxygen utilization to the supply due to anesthetic drugs and hypothermia.2425 In any case, increasing oxygen availability by correcting hypovolemia and/or an inadequately low cardiac output is the only possibility to reverse ongoing tissue hypoxia. The timing of therapeutic intervention is definitely a key issue, as shown by the data of the present trial, when the same amount of fluids and PRBC was administered earlier in group A than in group B. Only the dose and the frequency of use of dobutamine were higher in group A than in group B. However, the dose was much lower than in some previous studies,12,15,19,26 where the hemodynamic target could not be achieved with 20 to 25 μg/kg/min of dobutamine. As cardiac function was often compromised in the patients studied here, the frequent use of dobutamine was actually expected. As the preoperative use of beta-blockers was similar in both groups (data not shown), the absence of difference in HR rate in spite of a more frequent use of higher doses of dobutamine in group A than group B is somewhat surprising. A partial explanation could be related to the earlier fluid load in group A, thereby preventing the need for a compensatory increase in HR. The doses of dobutamine required were lower than in other studies,2,12 in which the therapeutic goal was cardiac output and oxygen delivery, that we did not record. The present data suggest that the optimization of O2ER could be achieved with low doses of dobutamine in conjunction with appropriate fluid loading. Dobutamine was preferred over other tested agents such as adrenaline or dopexamine,8 because we hypothesized that a transient myocardial dysfunction was a significant and correctable causative factor of tissue hypoxia unresponsive to fluid loading. However, we cannot anticipate the effects of other agents with positive inotropic effects.

The efficacy of therapies guided to reach a hemodynamic goal was usually confirmed in conditions of tissue hypoperfusion and possible early and reversible tissue hypoxia such as the initial phases of trauma, severe sepsis, and surgery,2,810,13,15,2123,27 but was no longer confirmed in protracted conditions, likely associated with irreversible organ dysfunctions perhaps related to cell death.1112,26 We might explain the discrepancy between these latter findings and the success of the approach tested here by the control and rapid prevention of tissue hypoxia as soon as a warning signal was believed, in contrast to the indiscriminate use of a standard therapy with its potential side effects regardless of the presence or the stage of tissue hypoxia. Therefore, the data presented here cannot be extrapolated to conditions where more complex impairments of oxygen utilization and other mechanisms of cell injury can occur. Indeed, the interpretation of O2ERe can then become much more complex than during surgery. In any case, also a metaanalysis,28 showed that interventions aimed to hemodynamic optimization of high risk surgical patients reduce mortality, with an odd ratio of 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 0.81).

In this study, we compared two potential indexes of tissue level oxygenation: Scvo2/O2ERe and arterial lactate. Consistently, lactate rose later than Scvo2 and O2ERe and only when these were not corrected aggressively (in group B). Interestingly, organ failures were observed much more often in patients with at least one elevated lactate value (24 organ failures in 53 patients) than in patients without any elevation of lactate (6 organ failures in 82 patients) [p < 0.001]. The changes in Scvo2 and O2ERe are transient, however, while the later increase in lactate lasts longer. Taken together, these findings are consistent with the basic assumption of tissue hypoperfusion that leads to hypoxia, decreased oxygen consumption, and eventual production of lactate, cell injury, and organ failure.

In conclusion, during major abdominal surgery, the findings presented here argue for a close monitoring of O2ER calculated from central venous blood sample and for the routine use of a therapeutic algorithm designed to correct an increase in O2ER > 27%.

Hospitals Participating the Study

Ancona University Hospital; Fano Hospital; Perugia University Hospital; Varese University Hospital; “Porta Roma” Hospital, Verona; San Salvatore Hospital, Pesaro; “Galliera” Hospital, Genova; Jesi Hospital; and Senigallia Hospital.

Abbreviations: ASA = American Society of Anesthesiologists; CVP = central venous pressure; HR = heart rate; MAP = mean arterial pressure; NS = not significant; O2ER = oxygen extraction ratio; O2ERe = oxygen extraction ratio estimated; PRBC = packed RBC; Sao2 = arterial oxygen saturation; Scvo2 = central venous saturation

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1. Therapeutic protocol. In addition to the standard management (group B), a standardized therapeutic protocol designed to restore and/or keep O2ERe < 27% was applied to patients randomized to group A. Intra-op = intraoperative; Preop = preoperative; Postop = postoperative.Grahic Jump Location
Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1. Definition of Organ Failures*
* 

Modified from Gattinoni et al.11 ALT = alanine aminotranferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase.

 

Myocardial infarction was defined when ECG (ST-segment elevation, new bundle-branch block, 20% have other changes, eg, ST-segment depression or T-wave inversion), and an increase of troponin levels > 0.2 ng/mL were both present.

 

ECG was performed every day for the first 3 postoperative days, then after 3 days and when the clinician judged necessary.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 2. Patient Characteristics*
* 

Data are presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

Figure Jump LinkFigure 2. Therapeutic interventions. Total fluids, PRBC, and dobutamine (Dobu) administered to the patients randomized to standard care (group B [B]) and to patients assigned to a standardized therapeutic protocol designed to restore and/or keep O2ERe < 27% (group A [A]). The number of patients receiving fluid challenges (left panel), PRBCs (middle panel), and dobutamine (right panel) are shown. For each set of data, the number of patients recorded during the total period of observation (left bars), the intraoperative period (middle bars), and the postoperative period (right bars) are shown.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 3. Time course of MAP (mm Hg), CVP (mm Hg), urinary output (mL/h), blood lactate (mmol/L), Scvo2 (%), and O2ERe recorded after induction of anesthesia (T0), hourly after cutaneous incision (T1a–f), throughout surgery, during the first 6 h of the postoperative period (T2a–f), and on postoperative day 1. Group A (O2ERe group) is represented by solid line, and group B (standard management group) is represented by dotted line. Data are shown as mean ± SD. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 between groups.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 4. Number and type of organ failures observed in group A (O2ERe group, dotted column) and in group B (standard management group, black column). The total number of organ failures was lower in group A than in group B (p < 0.01). The incidence of each type of organ failure was decreased, with the exception of respiratory failure.Grahic Jump Location
Shoemaker, WC, Appel, PL, Kram, HB (1992) Role of oxygen debt in the development of organ failure sepsis, and death in high-risk surgical patients.Chest102,208-215. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
 
Lobo, SM, Salgado, PF, Castillo, VG, et al Effects of maximizing oxygen delivery on morbidity and mortality in high-risk surgical patients.Crit Care Med2000;28,3396-3404. [PubMed]
 
Shoemaker, WC, Appel, PL, Kram, HB Tissue oxygen debt as determinant of lethal and nonlethal postoperative organ failure.Crit Care Med1988;16,1117-1120. [PubMed]
 
Donati, A, Battisti, D, Recchioni, A, et al Predictive value of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and gastric intramucosal pH (pH-i) in major abdominal surgery.Intensive Care Med1998;24,329-335. [PubMed]
 
Cain, SM Appearance of excess lactate in anesthetized dogs during anemic and hypoxic hypoxia.Am J Physiol1965;209,604-610. [PubMed]
 
Vincent, JL The relationship between oxygen demand, oxygen uptake, and oxygen supply.Intensive Care Med1990;16(suppl 2),S145-S148. [PubMed]
 
Elliott, DC An evaluation of the end points of resuscitation.J Am Coll Surg1998;187,536-547. [PubMed]
 
Boyd, O, Grounds, RM, Bennet, ED A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients.JAMA1993;270,2699-2707. [PubMed]
 
Wilson, J, Woods, I, Fawcett, J, et al Reducing the risk of major surgery: randomized controlled trial of preoptimization of oxygen delivery.BMJ1999;318,1099-1103. [PubMed]
 
Gan, TJ, Soppitt, A, Maroof, M, et al Goal-directed intraoperative fluid administration reduces length of hospital stay after major surgery.Anesthesiology2002;97,820-826. [PubMed]
 
Gattinoni, L, Brazzi, L, Pelosi, P, et al A trial of goal-oriented hemodynamic therapy in critically ill patients.N Engl J Med1995;333,1025-1036. [PubMed]
 
Hayes, MA, Timmins, AC, Yau, EHS, et al Elevation of systemic oxygen delivery in the treatment of critically ill patients.N Engl J Med1994;330,1717-1722. [PubMed]
 
Rivers, E, Nguyen, B, Havstad, S, et al Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock.N Engl J Med2001;345,1368-1377. [PubMed]
 
Reinhart, K, Rudolph, T, Bredle, DL, et al Comparison of central-venous to mixed-venous oxygen saturation during changes in oxygen supply/demand.Chest1989;95,1216-1221. [PubMed]
 
Bland, RD, Shoemaker, WC, Abraham, E, et al Hemodynamic and oxygen transport patterns in surviving and nonsurviving postoperative patients.Crit Care Med1985;13,85-90. [PubMed]
 
Rady, MY, Rivers, EP, Nowak, RM Resuscitation of the critically ill in the ED: responsiveness of blood pressure, heart rate, shock index, central venous oxygen saturation, and lactate.Am J Emerg Med1996;14,218-225. [PubMed]
 
Cortez, A, Zito, J, Lucas, CE, et al Mechanism of inappropriate polyuria in septic patients.Arch Surg1977;112,471-476. [PubMed]
 
Owens, WD, Felts, JA, Spitznagel, EL AMA physical status classifications.Anesthesiology1978;49,239-243. [PubMed]
 
Yu, M, Levy, MM, Smith, P, et al Effect of maximizing oxygen delivery on morbidity and mortality rates in critically ill patients: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.Crit Care Med1993;2,830-837
 
Fleming, A, Bishop, M, Shoemaker, WC Prospective trial of supranormal values as goals of resuscitation in severe trauma.Arch Surg1992;127,1175-1181. [PubMed]
 
Bishop, MH, Shoemaker, WC, Appel, PL, et al Prospective randomized trial of survivor values of cardiac index, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption as resuscitation end-points in severe trauma.J Trauma1995;38,780-787. [PubMed]
 
Pearse, R, Dawson, D, Fawcett, J, et al Early goal-directed therapy after major surgery reduces complications and duration of hospital stay: a randomized, controlled trial (ISRCTN38797445).Crit Care2005;9,R687-R693. [PubMed]
 
Bilkovski, RN, Rivers, EP, Horst, HM Targeted resuscitation strategies after injury.Curr Opin Crit Care2004;10,529-538. [PubMed]
 
Karimova, A, Pinsky, DJ The endothelial response to oxygen deprivation: biology and clinical implications.Intensive Care Med2001;27,19-31. [PubMed]
 
Lugo, G, Arizpe, D, Dominguez, G, et al Relationship between oxygen consumption and oxygen delivery during anesthesia in high-risk surgical patients.Crit Care Med1993;21,64-69. [PubMed]
 
Tuchschmidt, J, Fried, J, Astiz, M, et al Elevation of cardiac output and oxygen delivery improves outcome in septic shock.Chest1992;102,216-220. [PubMed]
 
Cain, SM, Bradley, WE Critical oxygen transport values at lowered body temperature in rats.J Appl Physiol1983;55,1713-1717. [PubMed]
 
Poeze, M, Grave, JWM, Ramsay, G Meta-analysis of hemodynamic optimization: relationship to methodological quality.Crit Care2005;9,R771-R779. [PubMed]
 

Figures

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1. Therapeutic protocol. In addition to the standard management (group B), a standardized therapeutic protocol designed to restore and/or keep O2ERe < 27% was applied to patients randomized to group A. Intra-op = intraoperative; Preop = preoperative; Postop = postoperative.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 2. Therapeutic interventions. Total fluids, PRBC, and dobutamine (Dobu) administered to the patients randomized to standard care (group B [B]) and to patients assigned to a standardized therapeutic protocol designed to restore and/or keep O2ERe < 27% (group A [A]). The number of patients receiving fluid challenges (left panel), PRBCs (middle panel), and dobutamine (right panel) are shown. For each set of data, the number of patients recorded during the total period of observation (left bars), the intraoperative period (middle bars), and the postoperative period (right bars) are shown.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 3. Time course of MAP (mm Hg), CVP (mm Hg), urinary output (mL/h), blood lactate (mmol/L), Scvo2 (%), and O2ERe recorded after induction of anesthesia (T0), hourly after cutaneous incision (T1a–f), throughout surgery, during the first 6 h of the postoperative period (T2a–f), and on postoperative day 1. Group A (O2ERe group) is represented by solid line, and group B (standard management group) is represented by dotted line. Data are shown as mean ± SD. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 between groups.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 4. Number and type of organ failures observed in group A (O2ERe group, dotted column) and in group B (standard management group, black column). The total number of organ failures was lower in group A than in group B (p < 0.01). The incidence of each type of organ failure was decreased, with the exception of respiratory failure.Grahic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1. Definition of Organ Failures*
* 

Modified from Gattinoni et al.11 ALT = alanine aminotranferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase.

 

Myocardial infarction was defined when ECG (ST-segment elevation, new bundle-branch block, 20% have other changes, eg, ST-segment depression or T-wave inversion), and an increase of troponin levels > 0.2 ng/mL were both present.

 

ECG was performed every day for the first 3 postoperative days, then after 3 days and when the clinician judged necessary.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 2. Patient Characteristics*
* 

Data are presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

References

Shoemaker, WC, Appel, PL, Kram, HB (1992) Role of oxygen debt in the development of organ failure sepsis, and death in high-risk surgical patients.Chest102,208-215. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
 
Lobo, SM, Salgado, PF, Castillo, VG, et al Effects of maximizing oxygen delivery on morbidity and mortality in high-risk surgical patients.Crit Care Med2000;28,3396-3404. [PubMed]
 
Shoemaker, WC, Appel, PL, Kram, HB Tissue oxygen debt as determinant of lethal and nonlethal postoperative organ failure.Crit Care Med1988;16,1117-1120. [PubMed]
 
Donati, A, Battisti, D, Recchioni, A, et al Predictive value of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and gastric intramucosal pH (pH-i) in major abdominal surgery.Intensive Care Med1998;24,329-335. [PubMed]
 
Cain, SM Appearance of excess lactate in anesthetized dogs during anemic and hypoxic hypoxia.Am J Physiol1965;209,604-610. [PubMed]
 
Vincent, JL The relationship between oxygen demand, oxygen uptake, and oxygen supply.Intensive Care Med1990;16(suppl 2),S145-S148. [PubMed]
 
Elliott, DC An evaluation of the end points of resuscitation.J Am Coll Surg1998;187,536-547. [PubMed]
 
Boyd, O, Grounds, RM, Bennet, ED A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients.JAMA1993;270,2699-2707. [PubMed]
 
Wilson, J, Woods, I, Fawcett, J, et al Reducing the risk of major surgery: randomized controlled trial of preoptimization of oxygen delivery.BMJ1999;318,1099-1103. [PubMed]
 
Gan, TJ, Soppitt, A, Maroof, M, et al Goal-directed intraoperative fluid administration reduces length of hospital stay after major surgery.Anesthesiology2002;97,820-826. [PubMed]
 
Gattinoni, L, Brazzi, L, Pelosi, P, et al A trial of goal-oriented hemodynamic therapy in critically ill patients.N Engl J Med1995;333,1025-1036. [PubMed]
 
Hayes, MA, Timmins, AC, Yau, EHS, et al Elevation of systemic oxygen delivery in the treatment of critically ill patients.N Engl J Med1994;330,1717-1722. [PubMed]
 
Rivers, E, Nguyen, B, Havstad, S, et al Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock.N Engl J Med2001;345,1368-1377. [PubMed]
 
Reinhart, K, Rudolph, T, Bredle, DL, et al Comparison of central-venous to mixed-venous oxygen saturation during changes in oxygen supply/demand.Chest1989;95,1216-1221. [PubMed]
 
Bland, RD, Shoemaker, WC, Abraham, E, et al Hemodynamic and oxygen transport patterns in surviving and nonsurviving postoperative patients.Crit Care Med1985;13,85-90. [PubMed]
 
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    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543