More commonly, PVS is seen as a complication of radioablation for atrial fibrillation. The rate is actually 1 to 2%, ranging from < 1% up to 38% depending on the ablation technique used, the center experience, the approach to diagnosis (ie, screening vs symptom-diagnosed), the definition of stenosis, the follow-up interval, and the diagnostic method used. The main symptoms of PVS, which in the majority of patients occur between 1 and 3 months after undergoing the ablation procedure, are dyspnea on exertion, cough, pleuritic chest pain, and, less frequently, hemoptysis. The occurrence of symptoms was found to be associated with the involvement of severe stenosis of more than one PV. On the other hand, even patients with occlusion of a PV may be asymptomatic. Radiologic abnormalities, as seen in the presented case, are not normally observed but can lead to false diagnoses such as pneumonia or lung cancer. Furthermore, patients often receive a misdiagnosis of pulmonary embolism due to the perfusion defects seen on ventilation/perfusion scanning in those with severe PVS or occlusion.