This article reviews lung transplantation in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Lung transplantation is commonly utilized for patients with end-stage CF. There are several characteristics of CF that present unique challenges before and after lung transplantation. There is new information available that can be utilized to predict outcomes in patients with end-stage CF, and therefore can help in decisions of referral and listing for lung transplantation. The new lung allocation score, which allocates organs to patients who are on the lung transplant waiting list in the United States, presents new challenges and opportunities for patients with end-stage CF. In addition, the effect of the presence of microbiological flora prior to lung transplantation has been better linked to outcomes after lung transplantation. It is now known that, other than those patients harboring Burkholderia cepacia in their lungs before transplantation, most CF patients can undergo transplantation successfully. Nutrition remains an important issue among CF patients, and diabetes is a common problem after lung transplantation. In contrast, liver disease does not usually present major problems but, if it is severe, can necessitate liver and lung transplantation. Mechanical ventilation prior to transplantation might not be an absolute contraindication for CF patients. CF lung transplant recipients have good outcomes after lung transplantation compared with those of other lung transplant recipients. Quality of life is dramatically improved. However, they are still prone to common complications that all lung transplant recipients are prone to, including primary graft dysfunction, acute and chronic rejection, a variety of infections and malignancies, and renal failure.