The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services reimburses physicians for reasonable and necessary smoking cessation services provided in compliance with national and local coverage determinations. Covered indications require the patient to have a disease or adverse health effect that is caused or complicated by tobacco use. The “adverse affect” may be a condition for which the patient is being treated with a medication whose metabolism or dosage is impacted by tobacco use. Each physician counseling session, up to four, is covered during a single attempt. Two physician attempts, totaling eight counseling sessions, are covered in a 12-month period. In order to receive reimbursement, the physician or a qualified nonphysician provider (eg, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, clinical nurse specialist, clinical social worker) must personally provide a service lasting at least 3 min and report the counseling session(s) under the corresponding provider number, depending on the location of the services (refer to chapter 15, sections 170 and 190–210 of the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual for independent billing rules: http://www.cms.hhs.gov/manuals/Downloads/bp102c15.pdf). Payment varies by region but averages approximately $13 for G0375 and $25 for G0376. Counseling < 3 min is included in the standard physician visit and is not separately reportable with the G-codes listed above.