Hypersomnia related to CNS disorders can be due to a variety of conditions. In this review, we discuss the diagnosis and treatment of narcolepsy with and without cataplexy, idiopathic hypersomnia, recurrent hypersomnia, and related illnesses. Research has provided insight into the underlying etiologies of these disorders, such as the genetic influences on disease development and the fundamental role of hypocretins in narcolepsy. We define the current utility of diagnostic testing, including sleep studies, neuroimaging techniques, and laboratory investigations. New treatment options for hypersomnia are discussed.