Assuming that an applicant has followed the guidelines, asked a few critics to read over the proposal, and sent it in before the deadline, let us follow in some detail what happens next. The proposal will be assigned by the study section administrator to two or three reviewers who will decide whether this is likely to be in the upper 50% of all proposals. If so, the reviewers present a level of enthusiasm (outstanding, excellent, good, fair, or poor) to the study section. Then each reviewer presents a commentary, and the proposal is discussed by the entire group. The scores range from 1.0 (absolutely outstanding) to 5.0 (totally worthless). Since only the top 50% of proposals will be discussed, the lowest score should theoretically be 3.0, but sometimes a reviewer thinks a given proposal really is in the lower half, and a score > 3 will be given. The Chair of the study section then announces the permissible voting range. If one review suggests a rank of 1.9 and another suggests 2.2, anyone on the panel can vote for any score, but someone who votes for a widely divergent rank, eg, 3.9 or 1.1, is obliged to write a brief note justifying that score.